Creation of Nutfah, the Zygote

Creation of Nutfah, the Zygote

By Arslan Mayda


Only one or rarely two of the few sperms which stuck onto this zona radiata manages to penetrate into the egg.

As all the living beings, human being is also created from a male and a female. Gametes (germ cells) of male and female are being coupled at the widest point of cervix within a time span of 12 to 48 hours and thus resulting in the formation of a new and different human zygote.

Although 300 to 600 million sperms set off at the beginning of this period in order to meet with ovule, only the predestined one of them enter into the egg.

For insemination to be possible, an average of 400 million sperms should be available at every ejaculation.

Only 300 to 500 of these sperms would reach at the spot where they couple with the egg (ovum) in tubes, for as much number of sperms as possible should encircle the egg in order for the zygote to be formed.

In case the number of ejaculated sperms would be around 60 to 70 million, only 60 to 70 of them would reach at the spot where they couple with the egg in tubes and this is one of the reasons of male infertility.

The 300 to 500 sperms which strive to enter into egg meet with the cell layer (corona radiata) which is being serially positioned around the zona radiata.

A liquid is secreted from this zona radiata which punctures the euchromosome 1 placed on tip of sperm.

Each of various enzymes set free following the puncture of euchromosome is assigned to overcome a separate obstacle before the sperm.

Duty of the hyaluronidase enzyme, for instance, is to puncture the outer cell layer (corona radiata) which is assigned to protect the egg.

Resultantly, the sperm passes through this cell layer and sticks onto the zona radiata (zona pellucida).

The quasi-trypsin dissolutive (proteolytic) enzymes are employed for overcoming the zona radiata.

Only one or rarely two of the few sperms which stuck onto this zona radiata manages to penetrate into the egg.

It has been estimated that plurality of sperms around the egg, contrary to their rarity, facilitates their entry into the egg. The sperm penetrates into the egg with its tail but tail membrane stays outside.

The protective membrane of the ovum (zona pellucida) starts diffusing calcium within the very first minutes of sperm’s penetration and resultantly, granules are released, receptors are exterminated and the egg becomes structurally transformed.

Consequently, a thick layer is formed over the protective membrane (zona pellucida) for prevention of penetration of another sperm. Following the sperm’s penetration into egg (cytoplasm), the “fusion” process starts.

Fusion is the unification process of sperm and egg cells (pronuclei) each of which are separately containing 23 chromosomes.

Thus, construction of a genetic library which is containing 46 chromosomes and being prerequisite of formation (creation) of a new human baby is completed.

Afterwards, the first mitotic division gives way to a double-celled zygote and the embryo starts forming while settling into the secure base of the uterus.

As the outcoming child is going to be a mixture, i.e., a genuine and particular blend of the genetic codes available in the inherited gene pool, he/she will have resemblance to his/her parents and thus to their reciprocal kins (paternal and maternal grandparents, uncles and aunts and etc.).

Prophet Muhammad and Genetics

Creation of Nutfah, the Zygote2Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, pointed in his various sayings and explanations to the fact that the baby in mother’s womb carries a number of genetic features (characteristics) which are being inherited from the parents: When a Jewish person asked Him, “what is man created from?” he replied: “Man is created from a blend (mixture) of zygotes of both man and woman.” Then the Jew said: “Moses as well said the same before you.”2

Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, also shed light onto the fact of resemblance or inheritance of character by way of genes: “Is bathing a must for women?” asked Umm Sulaim to the Prophet. “Yes, it is a must when her seminal fluid outflows and seen,” he replied. “Do women have wet dreams?” she asked. “May God grant you goodness! How otherwise a child resembles to his/her mother?” He replied.3

As seen and understood by His above hadith (saying), He who was the great teacher of mankind was the first person who said that women do also see wet dreams.

He has also been the first person who articulated the concept of “dominancy,” which wasn’t understood before 1850s. He said: “The child resembles to either side of the parents whose seminal fluid comes to the fore and surpasses the others in mother’s womb during the intercourse. If there is an equilibrium, then, resemblance is also in equilibrium for both sides.”4

“If, during the intercourse, seminal fluid of the man precedes and surpasses that of the woman, then, the child resembles to the father, and if seminal fluid of the woman precedes and surpasses that of the man, then, the child resembles to the mother.”5

“If seminal fluid of the woman surpasses that of the man, then, the child resembles to his/her maternal uncles, and, if seminal fluid of the man surpasses that of the woman, then, the child resembles to his/her paternal uncles.”6

In another one of His sayings, He points out to the fact that the recessive characters (features) in the grand ancestral gene pool would dominantly and collectively emerge after following a couple of generations: “A man having a blackish baby boy approached and said to the Prophet: “I am suspecting my wife.” “Do you have camels?” the Prophet asked him. “Yes,” he replied. “Then, how are their colors?” The Prophet asked. “Red.” “Is there any one with grey color among them?” “Yes, there is.” “Then, where did this grey color come from?” asked the Prophet. “Presumably from a line of its ancestors,” the man responded. “Here you are! This child of you is also presumed to be coming from a line of your ancestors,” the Prophet told the man.7



  1. An euchromosome zone enriched by lysosome enzymes is noticed on stem of a mature sperm cell. The lysosome enzymes penetrate into the egg cell and impregnate it.
  2. Ahmad Bin Hanbal, Aynee, Ramouz Al Ahadeeth, Kanz Al Ummal, Jami’ul Saghir.
  3. Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawoud, Aynee, Ahmad Bin Hanbal.
  4. Muslim, Ibn Majah.
  5. Bukhari, Ahmad Bin Hanbal.
  6. Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawoud.
  7. Abu Dawoud, Muslim, Ahmad Bin Hanbal, Ibn Majah.


Taken with slight editorial modifications from the Fountain Magazine: Issue 81 / May – June 2011.

Dr. Arslan Mayda is a medical doctor at Sifa Hospital in Izmir, Turkey.

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Adaptation to Weather Extremes

Adaptation to Weather Extremes

By Aisha Abdelhamid

WeatherWith Ramadan occurring in one of the hottest months of the year for those of us in the northern hemisphere, and one of the coldest times of the year for those in the southern hemisphere, our physical ability to handle weather extremes becomes an interesting topic to reflect upon.

Can you imagine the special situation required of our bodies to adapt to extreme changes in the weather? For example, if my sister, currently experiencing winter in southern Australia, visits me for the Eid in a Mediterranean Country during summer, she will experience a dramatic change in climate.

Her body must adapt to summer, and then she will return home, once again adjusting to winter. How do our bodies handle such changes?

In fact, Allah has provided us with very efficient systems for regulating our internal temperature, automatically maintaining a stable core body temperature in cold winters, warm summers, and wild swings between both extremes.

The normal core body temperature for a healthy human is around 37°C. However, this can vary by as much as +/- 0.6°C depending on the physical activity, metabolism, hormonal levels, and even the time of day.

Adapting to Cold Weather

In cold weather, if the core body temperature drops below 34.4°C, hypothermia occurs. If it continues declining, the temperature regulating system in the hypothalamus usually fails around 29.4°C, with death soon after.

Living in cold locations, humans undergo physical adaptation to increase internal heat production.

As observed by the German biologist Carl Bergmann in 1847, humans in cold regions have greater body mass than those in warm climates.

The process of metabolism, converting food to fuel in our body’s cells, is accompanied by heat production. Therefore, greater body mass is equivalent to more cells, which produce greater heat for protection from cold.

Additionally, Allah provides other long-term physical adaptations to cold, including increased basal metabolic rate, as well as heat-insulating fat surrounding vital organs. Changes in blood flow patterns are also noted among people living in cold climates.

In the short term, as when a sudden, drastic change in location to a cold climate occurs, physical acclimatization has also been wondrously designed into our body systems by Allah to protect us in this case.

Sensing a drastic change in climate, our bodies respond to protect core body temperature. First, vasoconstriction occurs, narrowing blood vessels near the skin’s surface.

By reducing blood flow to areas in closest contact with the cold, less heat is lost through radiation. However, if temperatures are below freezing, our bodies won’t maintain vasoconstriction, because frostbite would occur.

Consequently, the internal temperature system responds with vasodilation, dilating these same blood vessels, increasing warm blood flowing near the skin to protect from freezing.

Cycling continuously between vasoconstriction and vasodilation, the body attempts to protect both stable core body temperature and skin from freezing.

Shivering, a natural increase in small muscle activity also helps produce heat.

Adapting to Hot Weather

In hot weather, if the core body temperature rises to 40.6-41.7°C, hyperthermia occurs. This condition can be fatal within only a few days, due to internal organs deteriorating.

Though, Allah has also designed our bodies to protectively respond to heat. Radiation is responsible for reducing most excess body heat; but in hot, dry climates, evaporative cooling, or sweating, can be significantly more helpful.

As noted by Bergmann also, less massive bodies are the rule among individuals living closer to the equator.

This is due to the same relationship between metabolism and heat production, where less massive bodies have fewer cells, and thus produce less heat. As we see, Allah designs our bodies for our individual locations and circumstances.

As the weather heats up, body heat is radiated from our skin. First, bringing blood vessels closer to skin, vasodilation increases heat radiation from the body.

Then, sweating releases water to cool the skin as it evaporates. These processes cycle continuously to protect both a stable core body temperature and the skin from being damaged by heat.

However, sweating’s cooling efficiency is directly related to the degree of humidity in the air. When moisture content is high, sweat can’t readily evaporate. Without rapid evaporation, the cooling effect of sweating is reduced.

On the other hand, less body fluid is lost in high humidity conditions, protecting the body by retaining precious fluid and mineral salts.

In hot, dry weather, sweat evaporates quickly, providing an efficient cooling effect. Even though, rapid loss of water and salts from sweating is more significant in dry, desert conditions.

Over a quart of fluid an hour may be lost through sweating on a hot summer day in the desert. Replacing body fluids is critical to keep the body hydrated and replace lost mineral salts.

A lemonade juice with a bit of salt added can be a very healthy alternative to a commercial sport drink.

Adapting to Sudden Changes in Climate

With the sudden change of climates, a person going from a cold environment to a hot environment or vice versa experiences additional adaptations, provided by Allah for special protection in this case.

For example, when experiencing a hot weather within a period as short as a few days, the degree of salt in the sweat gradually decreases, and the volume of sweat increases.

The natural volume of a person’s urine decreases, additionally reserving precious body fluids and mineral salts.


Aisha Abdelhamid is a native of Long Beach, California, happily residing in Egypt with her husband, Mohamed. A syndicated writer for Important Media Network, Aisha often represents the Muslim perspective on, an interfaith website exploring the relationship between faith and the natural environment.

Taken with slight editorial modifications from

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Why Does Islam Prohibit Drinking Alcohol?

Why Does Islam Prohibit Drinking Alcohol?

By Aisha Stacey

AlcoholIslam’s holistic approach to health and well-being means that anything that is harmful or mostly harmful, is forbidden. Therefore, Islam takes an uncompromising stand towards alcohol and forbids its consumption in either small or large quantities. Alcohol is undoubtedly harmful and adversely affects the mind and the body. It clouds the mind, causes disease, wastes money, and destroys individuals, families, and communities. Researchers[1] have proven that there is a strong link between alcohol and gambling. Drinking impairs judgment, lowers inhibition, and encourages the type of risk-taking involved in gambling and dangerous activities. Allah tells us in the Qur’an that intoxicants and gambling are abominations from Satan and orders us to avoid them. (Al-Ma’idah 5: 90)

In Australia, a country with a population of around 20 million, about 3000 people die each year from alcohol abuse while 65,000 others are hospitalized. Studies have consistently revealed a link between heavy drinking and brain damage and around 2500 Australians are treated annually for alcohol-related brain damage. Research in the United Kingdom indicates that 6% of cancer deaths are related to alcohol abuse and Harvard Centre for Cancer Prevention says that drinking greatly increases the risk for numerous cancers. Alcohol is considered highly carcinogenic, increasing the risk of mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, and breast cancers. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can lead to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, causing the child to be small at birth, have some facial malformations, small eye openings, webbed or even missing fingers or toes, organ deformities, learning disabilities, mental retardation and much more.

Researchers in Australia have also estimated that 47% of all those who commit violent crimes, and 43% of all victims of these crimes, were drunk prior to the event. Alcohol is responsible for 44% of fire injuries, 34% of falls and drownings, 30% of car accidents, 16% of child abuse instances, and 7% of industrial accidents. Even though it is clear that alcohol is responsible for a great many evils it is legal and even encouraged in most societies. In Muslim countries where alcohol is forbidden many people still find it difficult to resist temptation and fall prey to the disease that is alcoholism. Amazingly even in the light of such startling evidence against alcohol, people around the globe continue to consume alcohol in ever-increasing amounts. Why?

Alcohol is one of the tools Satan uses to distract humankind from the worship of Allah. Allah states clearly in the Qur’an that Satan is an open enemy towards humankind yet by drinking alcohol, we invite Satan into our lives and make it easy for him to distract us from our real purpose in life, to worship Allah.

“Surely, Satan is an enemy to you, so treat him as an enemy. He only invites his followers that they may become the dwellers of the blazing Fire.” (Fatir 35:6)

Alcohol affects the mind and makes sinful behavior and evil actions fair seeming. It creates enmity and hatred between people, prevents them from remembering Allah and distracts them from praying, and calls them to participate in unlawful sexual relationships. Alcohol generates shame, regret, and disgrace, and renders the drinker witless. It leads to the disclosure of secrets and exposure of faults.

“Satan wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from the prayer. So, will you not then abstain?” (Al-Ma’idah 5:91)

In pre-Islamic Arabia, alcohol use was widespread. To eradicate this evil, Allah in His mercy revealed the prohibition in stages. First, He made it clear to them that the harm of drinking alcohol is greater than its benefit, next He told the Muslims not to come to prayer while intoxicated and finally, He revealed a verse totally prohibiting alcohol.

“O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), gambling, idolatry, and divining arrows are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. So avoid that so that you may be successful.” (Al-Ma’idah 5: 90)

When this was revealed the Muslim citizens of Madinah immediately began to destroy and empty their alcohol containers into the streets. Even those who were guiltlessly enjoying cups of wine spat the alcohol from their mouths. It is said that the streets of Madinah ran with alcohol. Why then is it so difficult to expunge this evil in the 21st century? Believers today must completely trust Allah, in the same way, that the first Muslims trusted Allah and understood that He was their only Protector and Provider. All power and strength come from Allah and a scourge like alcohol can be eradicated only when those affected by alcohol turn to Allah with complete submission.

The Qur’an is a book of guidance sent to all of humankind. It is a set of instructions from the Creator for His creation. If we follow these instructions, our lives will be easy and tranquil, even in the face of disaster and mishap. Allah links alcohol and gambling to idolatry and declares it filthy and evil; however, He is merciful and generous towards the believers and acknowledges the power of addiction.

Islam is committed to encouraging and facilitating those who wish to repent of evil-doing and sinful behavior. Allah accepts repentance from those who are truly sorry for their actions and committed to staying away from sin. Muslim communities do not ostracise those who have made mistakes but keep them within the fold of Islam encouraging them to seek the closeness to Allah that will allow them to leave sinful behavior. Friends, family, and neighbors do not just look away while a person destroys himself or his family. Islam is a community-oriented faith. There is no place for an individual to do what he wants to do if it hurts others. Alcohol abuse affects not just the alcoholic but also his or her family, and the community. There is great wisdom in the prohibition of alcohol.


[1] All research in this article is taken from


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The Earth Disgorges Its Charges

The Earth Disgorges Its Charges

By Truth Seeker Staff

During earthquakes, the heavy substances below the surface have an opportunity to rise, and the Earth thus disgorges its charges, as revealed in the Qur'an.

During earthquakes, the heavy substances below the surface have an opportunity to rise, and the Earth thus disgorges its charges, as revealed in the Qur’an.

When the earth is convulsed with its quaking and the earth then disgorges its charges and man asks,

“‘What is wrong with it?’”, on that Day it will impart all its news.” (Az-Zalzalah 99: 1-4)

The word “zilzal” in Arabic means earthquake, or tremors, and the word “athqalaha” means “charges, heavy burdens.” When one considers the above verses in the light of the first meaning, it can be seen that reference is being made to an important scientific fact about earthquakes.

The Surah mentions the earth disgorging its charges. Indeed, as a result of research in recent years, it has been realized that there are heavy metals at the center of the Earth, and that these appear as a result of movements on the Earth’s surface. According to geologists’ calculations, as the Earth cooled, heavy and dense substances sank to its center, while lighter ones rose to the surface. For that reason, the Earth’s crust consists of the least heavy substances (basalt and granite rocks), while heavy metals (nickel and iron) are found in the core. As a result, the subsurface, which consists of molten metals, is made of a material that is much heavier and denser than the surface.

During earthquakes, the heavy substances below the surface have an opportunity to rise, and the Earth thus disgorges its charges, as revealed in the Qur’an. Moreover, those regions where metal reserves are most concentrated are also those with the greatest volcanic activity. These scientific findings, which emerged only recently, and as a result of wide-ranging research, are just some of the scientific facts indicated by Allah in the Qur’an.


Taken with slight editorial modifications from

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The Ozone Layer at the Poles as the Sun Rises

The Ozone Layer at the Poles as the Sun Rises

By Truth Seeker Staff


This phenomenon is particularly encountered in the North Pole (Arctic) region, and there is a serious loss of ozone for a few hours immediately after sunrise.

“Until he reached the rising of the sun and found it rising on a people to whom We had not given any shelter from it.” (Al-Kahf 18: 90)

The Arabic word “sitran” in verse 90 of Surat al-Kahf means “cover, shelter, curtain or screen.” The term “lam naj`al lahum min duniha sitran” describes an environment devoid of any shelter or protection against the Sun. In the light of present-day knowledge, this is suggestive of the ozone layer that protects living things against harmful solar rays.

The area where the ozone layer around the Earth is thinnest, where it protects least against solar radiation, is the poles.1 Scientific research has established a severe thinning of the ozone layer at the North Pole at the moment the Sun rises2 and this scientific discovery has been described as Sunrise Ozone Destruction (SOD).3

As a matter of fact, during their research, American scientists determined a rapid decrease in ozone concentration at the moment of sunrise – when there was no sign of any before.4 This phenomenon is particularly encountered in the North Pole (Arctic) region, and there is a serious loss of ozone for a few hours immediately after sunrise.5

ozoneThe Arabic word “matlia” in this verse, meaning the “rising place” of the Sun, may well be a reference to this scientific discovery about the ozone layer. (Allah knows the truth.) The fact that this information, obtained with 20th-century high technology, also appears in such a compatible form in the Qur’an, is yet more proof that the Qur’an is the revelation of our Lord, the One and Only Owner of science and technology.




Taken with slight editorial modifications from

  2. A. Barrie, J. W. Bottenheim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Crutzen, R. A. Rasmussen, “Ozone destruction and photochemical reactions at polar sunrise in the lower Arctic atmosphere”, Nature, 14 July 1988, Vol. 334, pp 138-141;
  3. Nagao, K. Matsumoto, H. Tanaka “Sunrise Ozone Destruction Found in the Sub-Tropical Marine Boundary Layer”, Geophysical Research Letters, 1999, Vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 3377–3380;
  4. Jagir S. Randhawa, “A Balloon Measurement of Ozone Near Sunrise”;
  5. Nagao, K. Matsumoto, H. Tanaka “Sunrise Ozone Destruction Found in the Sub-Tropical Marine Boundary Layer”, Geophysical Research Letters, 1999, Vol. 26, No. 22, pp. 3377–3380;


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Amazing Description of Realities of Nature in the Qur’an

Amazing Description of Realities of Nature in the Qur’an

By Mansoor Alam

Realities of NatureThe Qur’an while describing nature’s physical beauty makes certain remarks that bedazzle the human intellect, leaving it in awe! It says, “We have put shining stars for you in ‘Asmaa-al-dunya’.” In saying this, the Qur’an implies that there is a world beyond these shining stars. What we usually observe is the nearest sky. We do not know how many cosmic worlds are beyond that. By calling the nearest sky ‘Asmaa-al-dunya’ – the Qur’an has pointed out deep astronomical facts in just one word. In the period in which the Qur’an was being revealed, no one knew the astronomical realities. For example, the Qur’an uses the term ‘Masaabih’ which means, shining lamps. It is Allah’s mercy that He has arranged these stars and planets in such a way that they look so beautiful to us. Indeed, humans are amazed at how beautiful they look while shining!

If they were exposed to us as they really are, then we would not be able to sleep at night. The moon’s beauty has remained legendary since the dawn of civilization. To poets and literary luminaries, the moon has been serenaded as an object of extraordinary beauty. In fact, the word ‘lunatic’ derived from the word lunar, means an exquisite beauty that drives one mad. Yet when the astronauts lifted the veil from its face, the moon looked dreadful to us and was exposed as just a barren desert. Indeed, it is because of Allah’s mercy that the veil is not rent asunder from the true nature of the stars. To us, the stars look exquisitely stunning in the open azure sky. For this, we must be thankful to Allah that some realities are better hidden from us for our own good. He is a merciful God indeed!

But humans have made them objects of guesswork and astrology! The Qur’an states, “And, indeed, We have adorned the skies nearest to the earth with lights, and have made them objects of futile guesses for the evil ones [from among men], and for them have We readied suffering through a blazing flame” (Al-Mulk 67:5-6). That is, the evil ones try to convince humanity that human destiny is tied to the stars! This was being said at a time when the world was involved in all types of superstitions, idol worships, and star worship. In fact, star worshippers were called Saa-e-bin (Al-Baqarah 2:62) by the Qur’an. Star worshippers are mentioned in the story of Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH). They worshipped the stars as though they were gods. Even if the stars were not worshiped, stars were taken universally as being linked to human destiny at the time. The Qur’an states that soothsayers, sorcerers, and wizards used to foretell the future by drawing up horoscopes.

The Qur’an particularly challenged the Arabs of the era who were deeply steeped in superstitious beliefs.  The Qur’an asserts that those who are engaged in predicting kismet using astrology, are engaged in guesswork and are throwing superstitious arrows into darkness. The Qur’an calls them, ‘rajum-al-shayaatin’. The Qur’an states that the stars in the sky are to be admired for their beauty but not to be used for making prophecies. Still, we find astrologers and soothsayers who are engaged in guesswork using these stars. They hold the belief that the human future is tied to them!

Allama Iqbal says:

How can astrologer identify your place in life from looking at the stars?

You are dust made fully alive, not one dependent on the position of stars!

A human worth depends on his continuing efforts, his persistent struggle to exercise his freedom of choice and his ability to exercise Allah-given rights with deep conviction and steadfastness. But when these are taken away, when these are usurped from him, then what does remain of the human being? Please note the kind of metaphor the Qur’an uses to describe this: “suffering through a blazing flame” (Al-Mulk 67:5); for, suffering in hell awaits all who are [thus] bent on blaspheming against their Sustainer: and how vile a journey’s end (Al-Mulk 67:6). Such is their ignominy in this world. But in the life to come, [yet more] awesome suffering awaits them (Al-Ma’idah 5:33). Please note that the Qur’an says that such people –like astrologers and those who seek their advice on Taqdir – will suffer ignominy in this world.

A messenger used to be a revolutionary personality and his revolution was both all-embracing as well as universal. Vested interest groups, be they religious or temporal, used to get upset at his fair and just holistic reform program because it challenged entrenched elite systems and prevailing false ideologies and beliefs, as Ibrahim (PBUH) did.

Imagine how many different entrenched false ideologies, beliefs, and wrong socioeconomic and political systems that a messenger was to tackle at the same time. Imagine the immensity of revolutionary changes that a messenger was to create in the society while facing the intense opposition of the powerful forces of the status quo?

The Qur’an presents its claims based on rational evidence and logic and asks its opponents to provide proof of their claims as well: (Al-Baqarah 2:111) – Produce an evidence for what you are claiming, if what you say is true! Life’s realities are not decided by good feelings but by knowledge and reason. When the Prophet (PBUH) said that: (Yusuf 12:108) – My call is based on firm conviction and reason – then this is meant to refute all those beliefs ideologies that are product of false views and superstitions.  May Allah give us the strength to practice this important Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH).


Taken with slight editorial modifications from


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