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The Earth: A Living Planet

The Earth: A Living Planet

The earth is a living planet where many complex systems run perfectly and continuously, without pause.  When compared to other planets, it is evident that in all its aspects the earth is specially designed for human life.  Built on delicate balances, life prevails in every spot of this planet, from the atmosphere to the depths of the earth.

Exploring only a few of the millions of these delicate balances would be sufficient to show that the world we live in is specially designed for us.

One of the most important balances in our planet is revealed in the atmosphere that surrounds us.  The atmosphere of the earth holds the most appropriate gasses in the most appropriate ratio needed for the survival not only of human beings, but also of all the living beings on the earth.

The 77% of nitrogen, 21% of oxygen and 1% of carbon dioxide as well as other gasses readily available in the atmosphere represent the ideal figures necessary for the survival of living beings.  Oxygen, a gas that is vital for living beings, helps to burn up food and convert it into energy in our bodies.

If the oxygen quantity in the atmosphere were greater than 21%, the cells in our body would soon start to suffer great damage.  The vegetation and hydrocarbon molecules needed for life would also be destroyed.  If this quantity were less, then this would cause difficulties in our respiration, and the food we eat would not be converted into energy.  Therefore, the 21% of oxygen in the atmosphere is the most ideal quantity determined for life.

No less than oxygen, other gasses like nitrogen and carbon dioxide are also arranged in the ideal quantity for the needs of living beings and the continuity of life.  The amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere has the ideal ratio to balance the harmful and burning effects of oxygen.  This ratio represents the most appropriate value required for photosynthesis, which is essential for life’s energy supply on the earth.  Moreover, the amount of carbon dioxide has the most appropriate value needed to maintain the stability of the surface temperature of the earth and to prevent heat loss especially at night time.  This gas, comprising 1% of the atmosphere, covers the earth like a quilt and prevents the loss of heat to space.  If this amount were greater, the temperature of the earth would increase excessively, causing climatic instability and posing a serious threat to the  living beings.

These proportions remain constant thanks to a perfect system.  The vegetation covering the earth converts carbon dioxide to oxygen, producing 190 billion tons of oxygen every day.  The proportion of other gasses is always kept constant on the earth by the help of interconnected complex systems.  Life is thus sustained.

In addition to the establishment of the ideal gas mixture required for life on earth, the mechanisms needed to preserve and maintain this order are created alongside with it.  Any break in the balance, though instantaneous, or any change in the ratios even for a very short time period, would mean the total destruction of life.  Yet, this does not happen.  The formation of these gasses in the atmosphere just in the amount people need, and the constant preservation of these ratios indicate a planned creation.

At the same time, the earth has the ideal size in terms of magnitude to possess an atmosphere.  If the mass of the earth were a little less, then its gravitational force would be insufficient and the atmosphere would be dispersed into space.  If its mass were a little greater, then the gravitational force would be too much and the earth would absorb all gasses in the atmosphere.  There is an incredibly high number of conditions required for the formation of an atmosphere such as the one our world currently has and all of these conditions should exist altogether to be able to talk of life.

The creation of these delicate proportions and balances in the sky is mentioned in the Quran:

“He erected heaven and established the balance.” (Quran 55:7)

The majority of people spend their lives without being aware of the delicate balances and subtle adjustments in the gas composition of the atmosphere, the distance of the world from the sun or the movements of planets.  They are ignorant of the great significance of these balances and adjustments to their own lives.  However, even a minor deviation in any one of these arrangements would create very severe problems regarding the existence and survival of humankind.

There are many other balances established on earth for the continuity of life:

For instance, if the surface gravity were stronger than its current value, the atmosphere would retain too much ammonia and methane gasses, which would mean the end of life.  If it were weaker, the planet’s atmosphere would lose too much water, and life on earth would be impossible.

The thickness of the earth’s crust constitutes another one of the delicate balances in the earth.  If the earth’s crust were thicker, too much oxygen would be transferred from the atmosphere to the crust and this would have severe effects on human life.

If the opposite were true, that is, if the earth’s crust were thinner, volcanic and tectonic activity would be too great to permit life on earth.

Another crucial balance for human life is the ozone level in the atmosphere.  If it were greater than its current value, the surface temperatures would be too low.  If it were less, surface temperatures would be too high, and there would be too much ultraviolet radiation at the surface.

In fact, the absence of even a single one of these balances would herald the end to life on earth.  However, God has created the universe with infinite wisdom and power and designed the earth especially for human life.  Despite this fact, the majority of people lead their lives in total ignorance of these events.  In the Quran, God reminds people of His:

“(God) makes night merge into day and day merge into night, and He has made the sun and moon subservient, each one running until a specified time.  That is God, your Lord.  The Kingdom is His.  Those you call on besides Him have no power over even the smallest speck.” (Quran 35:13)

It is sufficient to look at millions of dead planets in space in order to understand that the delicate balances required for life on earth is not a result of random coincidences.  The conditions essential for life are too complicated to have been formed “on their own” and at random, and these conditions are specially created for life alone.

These balances we have briefly described so far are only a few of the millions of intricate, interrelated balances and orders established so that people can live in peace and safety on the earth.

Examining only a part of the balances and harmony on the earth is enough to comprehend the superior being of God and grasp the existence of a planned creation in every detail of the universe.  It is no doubt impossible for a person or any other living being to build such an enormous balance and order.  Nor are the components of this order such as atoms, elements, molecules, and gasses, capable of establishing an order based on such intricate and extremely delicate calculations and measurements, and such fine tunings.  This is because activities like planning, ordering, arranging, calculating, and proportioning can only be realized by beings that possess wisdom, knowledge and power.  The Exalted Being Who orders, plans and balances the entire universe to be fit for life of human beings on a planet like earth and Who sustains it with dramatically delicate measures and balances is God, Who has Infinite Wisdom, Knowledge and Power.

In the Quran, it is stated that those people who are able to realize these facts are the only “people with intelligence”:

“Indeed in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are Signs for people with intelligence: those who remember God, standing, sitting and lying on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: [They say] ‘Our Lord, You have not created this for nothing.  Glory be to You!  So safeguard us from the punishment of the Fire.” (Quran 3:190-191)


 

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Common Material, Design and Designer

Common Material, Design and Designer

The recent completion of the human gene map within the scope of the Human Genome Project is an important scientific improvement.  However, some results of this project are being distorted in some evolutionist publications.  It is claimed that the genes of chimpanzees are 98% similar to human genes, and this is presented as evidence for the claim that apes are close to humans, and therefore logical ancestors of humans, as claimed by Darwin’s theory of evolution.  The argument is misleading.

The claim of 98% similarity is deceptive.  To claim that the genetic make-up of man and chimpanzee bear 98% similarity to each other, the genome of the chimpanzee also has to be mapped just as that of man and the two have to be compared.  No such completed research for the chimpanzee has been done yet.

This claimed similarity is an exaggerated generalization grounded in the similarity in the amino acid sequences of some 30-40 basic proteins present in man and chimpanzee.  A sequence analysis has been made with a method named “DNA hybridization” on the DNA sequences that are correlated with these proteins and only those limited number of proteins have been compared.  However there are about hundred thousand genes, and therefore 100,000 proteins coded by these genes in humans.  The claim that all the genes of man and ape are 98% similar is based on the similarity in 40 out of 100,000 proteins!

Moreover, the above mentioned basic proteins are common vital molecules present in various other living beings.  The structures of the same kinds of proteins present not only in chimpanzees, but also in completely different living beings, are very similar to that in humans.

For example, the genetic analyses published in New Scientist have revealed a 75% similarity between the DNA’s of nematode worms and man.  (New Scientist, 15 May 1999, p.27) This definitely does not mean that there is only a 25% difference between man and these worms!

Furthermore, the analyses done on some proteins have shown man as close to some very different living beings.  In a survey carried out by the researchers at Cambridge University, some proteins of land dwelling animals were compared.  Amazingly, in nearly all samples, man and chicken were paired as the closest relatives.  The next closest relative was the crocodile.  (New Scientist v.103, 16 August 1984, p.19)

Another example used by evolutionists on “the genetic similarity between man and ape”, is the presence of 48 chromosomes in chimpanzees and gorillas and 46 chromosomes in man.  Evolutionists regard the closeness of the number of chromosomes as indication of an evolutionary relationship.  However, if this logic were true, then man should have an even closer relative than the chimpanzee: the potato!  The number of chromosomes in a potato is exactly equal to the number of chromosomes in a human: 46.

These examples show that genetic similarity does not constitute evidence for the theory of evolution.  This is because the genetic similarities are not in line with the alleged evolution schemes and, on the contrary, they yield largely inconsistent results.

Not surprisingly, when the issue is evaluated as a whole, it is seen that the subject of “bio-chemical similarities” does not constitute evidence for evolution, but, on the contrary, leaves the theory in the lurch.  Dr. Christian Schwabe, a biochemistry researcher from the Medical Faculty of South Carolina University, is an evolutionist scientist who has spent years trying to find evidence for evolution in the molecular domain.  He particularly did research on insulin and relaxin-type proteins and tried to establish evolutionary relationships between living beings.  However, he had to confess many a time that he could not find any evidence for evolution at any point in his studies.  He said:

“Molecular evolution is about to be accepted as a method superior to paleontology for the discovery of evolutionary relationships.  As a molecular evolutionist I should be elated.  Instead, it seems disconcerting that many exceptions exist to the orderly progression of species as determined by molecular homologies; so many, in fact, that I think the exception, the quirks, may carry the more important message” (Christian Schwabe, “On the Validity of Molecular Evolution”, Trends in Biochemical Sciences.  V.11, July 1986)


Based on the recent findings obtained in the field of molecular biology, the renowned biochemist Prof. Michael Denton made the following comments:

“Each class at molecular level is unique, isolated and unlinked by intermediates.  Thus, molecules, like fossils, have failed to provide the elusive intermediates so long sought by evolutionary biology… At a molecular level, no organism is “ancestral” or “primitive” or “advanced” compared with its relatives… There is little doubt that if this molecular evidence had been available a century ago… the idea of organic evolution might never have been accepted.” (Michael Denton, Evolution; “A Theory in Crisis”, London; Burnett Books 1985 pp.290-291)

It is surely natural for the human body to bear some molecular similarities to other living beings because they are all made up of the same molecules; they all use the same water and atmosphere; and they all consume foods consisting of the same molecules.  Certainly, their metabolisms, and therefore genetic make-up, would resemble one another.  This, however, is not evidence that they evolved from a common ancestor.

This “common material” is not the result of evolution but of “common design”; that is, being created upon the same plan.

It is possible to explain this subject with an example.  The majority of buildings  are constructed with similar materials (brick, iron, cement, etc.).  This, however, does not mean that these buildings “evolved” from each other.  They are constructed separately by using common materials.  The same is true of living beings as well.

Darwinists are distorting the results of the Human Genome Project.  Life did not originate as a result of unconscious coincidences as evolution claims, but as the result of the creation of God, the Almighty, the Owner of infinite knowledge and wisdom.

 

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The Scientific World Is Turning to God

The Scientific World Is Turning to God

“As people have certainly been influenced by me, I want to try and correct the enormous damage I may have done.” (Anthony Flew)

The newspapers these days are echoing with these regret-filled words by Antony Flew, in his time a well-known atheist philosopher.  The 81-year-old British professor of philosophy Flew chose to become an atheist at the age of 15, and first made a name for himself in the academic field with a paper published in 1950.  In the 54 years that followed, he defended atheism as a teacher at the universities of Oxford, Aberdeen, Keele and Reading, at many American and Canadian universities he visited, in debates, books, lecture halls and articles.  In recent days, however, Flew has announced that he has abandoned this error and accepts that the universe was created.

The decisive factor in this radical change of view is the clear and definitive evidence revealed by science on the subject of creation.  Flew realized, in the face of the information-based complexity of life, that the true origin of life is intelligent design and that the atheism he had espoused for 66 years was a discredited philosophy.

Flew announced the scientific reasons underlying this change in belief in these terms:

“Biologists’ investigation of DNA has shown, by the almost unbelievable complexity of the arrangements which are needed to produce [life], that intelligence must have been involved.”[1]

“It has become inordinately difficult even to begin to think about constructing a naturalistic theory of the evolution of that first reproducing organism.”[2]

“I have been persuaded that it is simply out of the question that the first living matter evolved out of dead matter and then developed into an extraordinarily complicated creature.”[3]

The DNA research which Flew cites as a fundamental reason for his change of opinion has indeed revealed striking facts about creation.  The helix shape of the DNA molecule, its possession of the genetic code, the nucleotide strings that refute blind chance, the storage of encyclopedic quantities of information and many other striking findings have revealed that the structure and functions of this molecule were arranged for life with a special design.  Comments by scientists concerned with DNA research bear witness to this fact.

Francis Crick, for instance, one of the scientists who revealed the helix shape of DNA admitted in the face of the findings regarding DNA that the origin of life indicated a miracle:

An honest man, armed with all the knowledge available to us now, could only state that in some sense, the origin of life appears at the moment to be almost a miracle, so many are the conditions which would have had to have been satisfied to get it going.[4]

Based on his calculations, Led Adleman of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles has stated that one gram of DNA can store as much information as a trillion compact discs.[5] Gene Myers, a scientist employed on the Human Genome Project, has said the following in the face of the miraculous arrangements he witnessed:

“What really astounds me is the architecture of life… The system is extremely complex.  It’s like it was designed… There’s a huge intelligence there.”[6]

The most striking fact about DNA is that the existence of the coded genetic information can definitely not be explained in terms of matter and energy or natural laws.  Dr. Werner Gitt, a professor at the German Federal Institute of Physics and Technology, has said this on the subject:

A code system is always the result of a mental process… It should be emphasized that matter as such is unable to generate any code.  All experiences indicate that a thinking being voluntarily exercising his own free will, cognition, and creativity, is required… There is no known natural law through which matter can give rise to information, neither is any physical process or material phenomenon known that can do this.[7]

Creationist scientists and philosophers played a major role in Flew’s acceptance of intelligent design, backed up by all these findings.  In recent times Flew participated in debates with scientists and philosophers who were proponents of creation, and exchanged ideas with them.  The final turning point in that process was a discussion organized by the Institute for Metascientific Research in Texas in May, 2003.  Professor Flew participated in the discussion together with the author, Roy Abraham Varghese, a physicist, and the molecular biologist, Gerald Schroeder.  Flew was impressed by the weight of the scientific evidence in favor of creation and by the convincing nature of his opponents’ arguments and abandoned atheism as an idea in the period following that discussion.  In a letter he wrote for the August-September, 2003, edition of the British magazinePhilosophy Now, he recommended Schroeder’s book “The Hidden Face of God: Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth” and Varghese’s book “The Wonderful World.”[8] During an interview with the professor of philosophy and theology Gary R. Habermas, who also played a major role in his change of mind,[9] and also on the video “Has Science Discovered God?”  he openly stated that he believed in intelligent design.

The “Intelligence Pervading the Universe” and the Collapse of Atheism

In the face of all the scientific developments outlined above, the acceptance of intelligent design by Anthony Flew, famous for defending atheism for many years, reflects a final scene in the process of collapse which atheism is being subjected to Modern science has revealed the existence of an “intelligence pervading the universe,” thus leaving atheism out of the equation.

In his book “The Hidden Face of God,” Gerald Schroeder, one of the creationist scientists who influenced Flew, writes:

A single consciousness, a universal wisdom, pervades the universe.  The discoveries of science, those that search the quantum nature of subatomic matter, have moved us to the brink of a startling realization: all existence is the expression of this wisdom.  In the laboratories we experience it as information that first physically articulated as energy and then condensed into the form of matter.  Every particle, every being, from atom to human, appears to represent a level of information, of wisdom.[10]

 

Scientific research into both the functioning of the cell and the subatomic particles of matter has revealed this fact in an indisputable manner: Life and the universe were brought into being from nothing by the will of an entity possessed of a superior knowledge and wisdom.  There is no doubt that the possessor of that knowledge and wisdom that designed the universe at all levels is Almighty God.  God reveals these truths in many verses of the Quran.


Footnotes:

[1] Richard N. Ostling, “Lifelong atheist changes mind about divine creator,” The Washington Times 10 December 2004; (http://washingtontimes.com/national/20041209-113212-2782r.htm.)

[2] Antony Flew, “Letter from Antony Flew on Darwinism and Theology,” Philosophy Now; (http://www.philosophynow.org/issue47/47flew.htm.)

[3] Stuart Wavell and Will Iredale, “Sorry, says atheist-in-chief, I do believe in God after all,” The Sunday Times, 12 December 2004; (http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2087-1400368,00.html)

[4] Francis Crick, Life Itself: Its Origin and Nature, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1981, p. 88

[5] John Whitfield, “Physicists plunder life’s tool chest”, 24 April 2003; (http://www.nature.com/nsu/030421/030421-6.html)

[6] San Francisco Chronicle, 19 February, 2001

[7] Werner Gitt, In the Beginning Was Information, CLV, Bielenfeld, Germany, pp. 64-7, 79

[8] Antony Flew, “Letter from Antony Flew on Darwinism and Theology,” Philosophy Now; (http://www.philosophynow.org/issue47/47flew.htm.)

[9] “Atheist Becomes Theist: Exclusive Interview with Former Atheist Antony Flew;” (http://www.biola.edu/antonyflew/index.cfm.)

[10] Gerald Schroeder, The Hidden Face of God, Touchstone, New York, 2001, p. xi.

 

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Instincts, Science, and Religion: An Islamic View

Instincts, Science, and Religion: An Islamic View

The care provided by the crocodile, a particularly savage animal, for its offspring is also quite astounding.  First, the crocodile digs a hole for the incubation of its eggs.  The temperature of the hole must never rise above 30ºC.  A slight rise in temperature would threaten the lives of the offspring in the eggs.  The crocodile takes care that the holes in which it places its eggs are located in rather shady places and goes to extraordinary efforts to keep the eggs at a constant temperature.  Some crocodile species build nests of weeds on cold water.  If the temperature of the nest still rises despite these measures, then the crocodile cools the nest by sprinkling urea on it.

The time when the eggs hatch is most important, because, in the event the crocodile failed to hear the noises coming from the nest, the young would be suffocated.  The mother crocodile brings the eggs out and helps the offspring out of their eggs by using her teeth as tweezers.  The crocodile, with her razor-sharp teeth, avoids the slightest movement likely to injure her young.  The safest place for the newly born is the protective pouch in its mother’s mouth which is specially designed to shelter half a dozen newly born crocodiles.

The meticulous care and concern a wild animal like the crocodile shows its offspring is only one of the examples proving the invalidity of the evolutionist claim of the struggle for life which maintains that the strong survive while the others are defeated and disappear.

The dolphin is another animal known for its self-sacrificing behavior.  Dolphins raise their offspring with great care from the moment they are born.  As soon as the newborn dolphin is born, it has to go up to the surface of the water for oxygen.  To provide this, the mother dolphin shows amazingly conscious behavior and, using the tip of her nose, gently pushes the offspring above the surface of the water.

Just before birth, the movements of the mother dolphin slow down considerably.  For this reason, two other females always accompany the mother dolphin during birth.  Always remaining on either side of the mother, the assistant dolphins assume the responsibility of protecting her from possible attacks by sharks that might be attracted by the smell of blood.

 

How can this instinct, defined by evolutionists as “a drive observed in animals but not completely understood”, guide animals to become civil engineers while building their nests, perfect soldiers while protecting their young or colonies, and turn even the most aggressive species into compassionate and gentle creatures towards their young?

Indeed, Darwin also had difficulties in answering this query, which he, himself, put forward.  He often left related questions unanswered too.  In his book The Origin of Species, he asks the following questions:

Thirdly, can instincts be acquired and modified through natural selection?  What shall we say to so marvelous an instinct as that which leads the bee to make cells, which have practically anticipated the discoveries of profound mathematicians? (Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, p.205)

As seen, Darwin’s doubts on “Natural Selection” are quite precise.  Although Darwin himself confesses that Natural Selection is not a reasonable explanation, the majority of evolutionists still insist on adhering to this fallacy.

Yet, every human being who observes nature with clear consciousness sees that living things are not brutal, tough or uncompassionate because of the so-called struggle for life.  On the contrary, living beings are self-sacrificing because of the “inspiration” their Creator bestowed upon them.

 

As expressed in the 68th verse of the 16th chapter, which says:

“Your Lord revealed to bees…”


“God” the Lord of the heavens and the earth and everything in between, the Infinitely Compassionate and Oft-Forgiving has control over all living things.  Their instincts, which Darwin was unable to explain within the scope of evolution, are actually the inspiration given by God to all living things.

All life in nature is created by God.  All living things come into being by the Will of God and behave in compliance with His inspiration.  The self-sacrificing behavior, kindness and care living beings display towards their young are merely the reflection of God’s name, the “Compassionate”.  This is revealed in the 7thverse of the 16th chapter:

“Your Lord is All-Gentle, Most Merciful.”

The Prophet himself stated:

“Indeed God specified one portion of His Mercy to the world, and with that a mother cares for her young, and wild animals and birds care for each other.” (Saheeh Muslim)

 

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The Signs in Heavens and Earth

The Signs in Heavens and Earth

Assume that you are going to set up a big city by bringing millions of Lego pieces together.  Let there be in this city skyscrapers, twisting roads, railway stations, airports, shopping malls, subways and also rivers, lakes, forests and a beach.  Let there also be living in it thousands of people wandering in its streets, sitting in their homes and working in their offices.  You will take every detail into account.  Even the traffic lights, box offices, and the signboards at the bus stations.

If someone came up to you and said that all the Lego pieces of this city, which you had established by planning it right down to the smallest detail, each piece of which you had picked up and set down with great pains, had been brought together by coincidence to produce it, what would you think of the mental state of that person?

Now, go back to the city you have built and consider that if you had forgotten to put into place even a single Lego piece, or changed its place, the whole city may collapse;  leveled to the ground.  Can you imagine what great balance and order you have had to establish in order to make it stable?

Life in the world where we live is also made possible by the accumulation of such a great number of details that they are incomprehensible to the human mind.  The absence of even one of these details might mean the end of life on the earth.

Everything, every detail from the atom, the smallest unit of matter, to the galaxies harboring billions of stars; from the moon, an inseparable adjunct of the world, to the solar system; all work in a perfect harmony.  This well-organized system runs flawlessly, just like a watch.  People are so confident that this billions-of-years-old system will go on functioning – without leaving out even the smallest detail – that they can freely make plans about something they think will be realized in the next 10 years.  No one is worried about whether the sun will rise the next day.  A great majority of people do not think about ‘whether the world may ever chance to break free from the gravitation of the sun and start to move towards the unknown in the pitch-dark space’; nor do many ask,  ‘What keeps these disasters from happening?’.

In the same manner, when people are about to sleep, they are very confident that their hearts or respiratory systems will not relax as their brains do.  However, even a few seconds’ halt in any one of these two vital systems may well cause results that will cost one’s life.

When the ‘glasses of familiarity’ which surround the whole of life and cause every event to be assessed as if ‘it is taking place in its natural course’ are taken off, one is free to see that everything is made up of such closely interdependent, meticulously planned systems that it is as if we were hanging on to life by the skin of our teeth.  You will notice an excellent order prevailing in every spot you turn your eyes on.

Certainly, there is a great power that creates such an order and harmony.  The possessor of this great power is God, Who created everything out of nothing.  In a verse of the Quran, God says:

“He Who has created seven heavens in full harmony with one another: no incongruity will you see in the creation of the Most Gracious.  And turn your vision (upon it) once more: can you see any flaw? Yea, turn your vision (upon it) again and yet again: (and every time) your vision will fall back upon you, dazzled and truly defeated.” (Quran 67:3-4)

When we look at the living beings in the heavens, on the earth and in all that lies between them, we see that they all prove the existence of their Creator in their own right.  So I suggest we all take a moment to reflect on the natural phenomena and living beings that every one sees, yet never thinks about, and how they have come into being and continue their existence.  If we were to write down all the signs of God in the universe, they would fill many thousands of volumes of encyclopedias… for God Exists.

To Him is due the origin of the heavens and the earth, and His existence can be known through reason.

 

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Voyage to the Planets and Beyond

Voyage to the Planets and Beyond

http://www.peteava.ro/static/swf/player.swf?3

Imagine trying to capture an icy block from Saturn’s rings or drill on the disintegrating surface of a comet. This program reveals for the first time the danger and spectacle of what it would be like for astronauts to land on and explore the other planets in the solar system. Their mission lasts for six years, extending the boundaries of what has been achieved in space travel to date. Combining the latest scientific thinking and the real-life experiences of astronauts with drama and spectacular CGI, Voyage to the Planets and Beyond propels us into the not-too-distant future.

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