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Islamic Law in Protecting Environment

Islamic Law in Protecting Environment

The Mandate of the Individual

The ultimate objective of Islamic law is the universal common good of all created beings.

The ultimate objective of Islamic law is the universal common good of all created beings, encompassing both our immediate welfare in the present and our ultimate welfare in the hereafter.

This objective of the universal common good is a distinctive characteristic of Islamic law. It means that no species or generation may be excluded from consideration in the course of planning and administration, but that each individual Muslim as well as the Muslim community must honestly strive toward the welfare of the whole.

The Mandate of the Individual

The ultimate responsibility for right action lies with the individual who will be judged on the Day of Judgment for what he did with his life, regardless of what religious awareness and guidance in this field is necessary so that each individual may take part in the protection and development of the environment and natural resources.

Much environmental degradation is due to people’s ignorance of what their Creator requires of them. People should be made to realize that the conservation of the environment is a religious duty demanded by God. God has said:

Be good, even as God has been good to you, and do not pursue corruption in the earth. Verily God does not love corrupters. (Al-Qasas 28:77)

Eat and drink, but waste not by excess; Verily He loves not the excessive. (Al-A`raf 7:31)


And do not follow the bidding of the excessive, who cause corruption in the earth and do not work good. (Ash-Shu`araa’ 26:151, 152)

And do not cause corruption in the earth, when it has been set in order. (Al-A`raf 7:56)

Any deliberate damage to the natural environment and resources is a kind of corruption which is forbidden by Islam. It is indeed a kind of despicable foolishness which every Muslim should shun, and which every ruler and every individual should prohibit, especially if it leads to or results in general damage. God has said:

Let you be a nation that calls to all that is good, that establishes right and eradicates wrong. Such are they who shall prosper. (Aal `Imran 3:104)

Religious awareness and Islamic guidance should employ all possible means at all levels to call all individuals to commit themselves to Islamic ethics, morals, and manners in dealing with nature, the environment, and the natural resources for their sustainable use and development. All individuals should be reminded of the following religious obligations:

– No wastage or over-consumption of natural resources;

– No unlawful obstruction or destruction of any component of the natural resources;

– No damage, abuse, or distortion of the natural environment in any way;

– Sustainable development of the earth, its resources, elements, and phenomena through the enhancement of natural resources, the protection and conservation of them and of all existing forms of life, bringing new life to the land through its reclamation, and the rehabilitation and purification the governing authorities with their various administrative and municipal agencies and courts of law required of him.

Therefore the protection, conservation, and development of the environment and natural resources is a mandatory religious duty to which every Muslim should be committed. This commitment emanates from the individual’s responsibility before God to protect himself and his community of the soil, air, and water.


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Islam: A Faith, Worship and Way of Life

Islam: A Faith, Worship and Way of Life

way of life

Islam presents the essential guidance that allows the creativity of the human mind to conceive, infer from, and build upon it.

By Dr. Fathi Osman

Islam is a religion, not a mere political system; it appeals primarily to the inwardness of the human mind and spirit, the promises the whole fulfillment of every individual and absolute justice in the eternal life to come. However, it requires that the individual’s spiritual development be represented and reflected in reforming personal behavior and social relations, in order to prove innate change and achieve salvation with its eternal rewards.

Islam not only has a vision of a just society, but also presents general principles of a whole way of life for the individual, the family, the society, the state, and the world relations in order to secure balance and justice in the whole human sphere. It offers the basic moral and organization rules for relations between man and woman, between the elderly and the young in the nuclear and extended family, and in the society, between the haves and the have-nots, between the rulers and the ruled, and between Muslims and others within the local society and throughout the world. Like ideologies, Islam does not provide detailed practicalities and programs, since such details are changeable to fit unceasing change in human circumstances in different times and places. Islam allows extensive room for the creativity of the human mind to cope with emerging changes, for the human mind is God’s gift to be fully used and developed, it should not be restricted or crippled by that other gift of God, His guiding messages. It is the same One God who created the human being, and Who grants him or her spiritual, moral, and intellectual faculties, and to whom He has sent His guiding messages as well, both are made in accordance with the all truth.

Thus, no contradiction between both may exist; Almighty Allah says,

And so set your face (and direct yourself) sincerely towards the faith, which is in accordance with the nature upon which God has originated human beings… (Ar-Rum 30:30)

God’s messages aim to develop the human being in his or her totality: spiritually, morally, intellectually, physically, individually and socially, and to guard him or her against egotism without suppressing human individuality and personal creativity. Divine guidance develops individuals through to their full spiritual potential instead of being deformed by selfish greed in a material civilization— as the American philosopher John Dewey has sharply pointed out.(1)

Therefore, Islam can be presented to and dealt with by a non-Muslim as an ideology, with some flexibility in using the term since it was coined for human ideas, or as general principles for a comprehensive way of life. Naturally, however, the intellectual conviction cannot provide the same moral depth, width and constancy as a religious commitment, which looks for the acceptance of the Absolute Supreme and the reward of eternity. Freedom and equality for all human beings are, for the believers in God, definite results of the belief in the One who is the only distinctive and supreme “the One to whom all greatness belongs,” “there is nothing like unto him,” “there is nothing that could be compared with Him.”(2)

All human beings are equally God’s creation, and each is free since he or she is only subject to God’s physical and moral laws, and each is equal to any other human being. Caliph `Umar (13-23H/634-44 C.E.) tersely addressed the Muslim governor of Egypt whose son beat an Egyptian child, “Since when did you impose slavery on human beings while their mothers bore them free!”(3)

However, the religious dimension in the Islamic ideology or plan, of individual and social, local and global reform, does not mean the establishment of a theocracy. There is no clergy in Islam; any intelligent human being who knows the language and the style can understand and interpret God’s message and no supernatural or metaphysical power can be required or claimed for such a work.

God’s message has ‘been preserved and made known publicly through centuries; and no human being can add to it or detract from it. The ideology of Islam, if we may say so, is not totalitarian. It does not dictate details that dominate every moment or make an imperative for any human thought and move, nor does it claim to provide a definitive prescription in advance for every specific problem that may emerge at any time in the future. Islam presents the essential guidance that allows the creativity of the human mind to conceive, infer from, and build upon it. The ruling authorities cannot monopolize providing the interpretation of the divine guidance or offer new solutions for emerging problems from above without involving the people, and every sane adult has the right to participate in such a process.


[1] John Dewey, Individualism: Old and New (New York: Minton & Batch, 1930; Arabic translation by Kyayri Hammad, Al-Fardiyya Qadiman wa Hadithan, Beirut: al Hayat Publications, 1960), p. 10-18

[2] See the Qur’an in the following Surahs Al-Hashr 59:23, Ash-Shura 42:11 and Al-Ikhlas 112:4.

[3] Ibn `Abd Al-Hakam, `Abd Ar-Rahman ibn `Abdullah, Futuh Misr wa-l-Maghrib, ed. by Abd Al-Manim Amir, Cairo: Ministry of Culture, 1961, p.224-6.


Source: Taken with modifications from the author’s “Islam in a Modern State: Democracy and the Concept of Shura”

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Kindness to Animals

Kindness to Animals

The E-Da`wah Committee presents this video which shows the stance of Islam regarding kindness to animals.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) clarified that kindness to animals is a means of forgiveness and pleasure of Allah. He said: “Whilst a man was walking on the road, he became very thirsty. He found a well, so he went down into it and drank. Then, he saw a dog that was panting and biting the ground out of thirst. He said, “This dog is experiencing the same thirst that I had.” So, he went back down into the well and filled his shoe with water. Then, he held it in his mouth until he climbed back up, and gave the water to the dog. Allah appreciated his action and forgave him.” The people asked, “O Allah’s Messenger! Is there a reward for us in serving the animals?” He replied, “Yes, there is a reward for serving any animate.” (Al-Bukhari)

On the other hand, cruel treatment of animals is something prohibited in Islam and admits one to the Hell. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said that a woman  kept a cat and did not feed or gave water to it until it passed away. Almighty Allah punished this woman and entered her Hell because of her bad treatment to an animal.

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Plants and Animals

Plants and Animals

There is no denying the importance of plants and animals as living resources of enormous benefit, without which neither man nor other species could survive. God – be He exalted -has not made any of His creatures worthless: every single form of life is the product of a special and intricate development by God, and warrants special respect. As a 1iving genetic resource, each species and variety is unique and irreplaceable. Once lost, it is lost forever.
By virtue of their unique function of producing food from the energy of the sun, plants constitute the basic source of sustenance for animal and human life on earth.

God has said, “Then let man consider his nourishment: that We pour down the rain in showers, and We split the earth in fragments, and therein make the grain to grow, and vines and herbs, and olives and palms, and gardens of dense foliage, and fruits and fodder- provision for you and your cattle. [29]

In addition to their importance as nourishment, plants enrich the soil and protect it from erosion by wind and water. They conserve the water by detaining its runoff; they moderate the climate and produce the oxygen which we breathe. They are also of immense value as medicines, oils, perfumes, waxes, fibers, timber, and fuel. God has said in the Glorious Qur’an, “Have you seen the fire you kindle? Was it you who grew its timber or did We grow it? We have made it a reminder, and a comfort for the desert- dwellers. [30]

Animals in turn provide sustenance for plants, for one another, and for man. Their dung and their bodies enrich the soil and the seas. They contribute to the atmosphere by respiration and by their movements and migrations contribute to the distribution of plants. They provide food for one another and provide mankind with leather, hair and wool, medicines and perfumes, and means of conveyance, as well as meat, milk, and honey. And for their highly developed senses and perceptions and their social interrelationships, animals are accorded special regard in Islam. For God considers them living societies exactly like mankind. God has declared in the Glorious Qur’an, “There is not an animal on the earth, nor any being that wings its flight, but is a people like unto you. [31]

The Glorious Qur’an mentions the aesthetic functions of these creatures as objects of beauty in addition to their other functions. Since peace of mind is a religious requirement which needs to be fully satisfied, those things which cause it should be amply provided and conserved. God has made in plants and animals that which excites wonder and joy in man’s soul so as to satisfy his peace of mind, a factor which is essential for man’s proper functioning and full performance.

The Glorious Qur’an also mentions other functions which these creatures perform and which man may not perceive, namely the functions of worshipping God, declaring if His praise and bowing down to Him as they are compelled by their very nature to do. God has said, “Do you not see that to God bow down in worship all things that are in the heavens and on the earth -the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the trees, the animals… [32] and God says, “The seven heavens and the earth and all the beings therein proclaim His glory: There is not a thing but celebrates His praise, but you understand not how they declare His glory. [33] and He says, “To God bow all beings in the heavens and the earth -with good will or in spite of themselves. [34]

Islam emphasizes all measures for the survival and perpetuation of these creatures so that they can fully perform the functions assigned to them. The absolute destruction of any species of animals or plant by man can in no way be justified; nor should any be harvested at a rate in excess of its natural regeneration. This applies to hunting and fishing, forestry and wood-cutting for timber and fuel, grazing, and all other utilization of living resources. It is imperative that the genetic diversity of living beings be preserved–both for their own sake and for the good of mankind and all other creatures.

The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be blessings and peace, was sent by God as a mercy to all beings.Qur’an: [35] He has shown us through his commandments and teachings, how to tend and care for these creatures. He said, “The merciful are shown mercy by the All-Merciful. Show mercy to those on earth, and He Who is in heaven will show mercy unto you. [36] He commanded mankind to provide for the needs of any animals under their care, and he warned that a person who causes an animal to die of starvation or thirst is punished by God in the fire of hell. Furthermore, he directed human beings to provide for needy animals in general, telling of a person whose sins God pardoned for the act of giving water to a dog in desperate thirst. Then when the people asked, O Messenger of God is there a reward in doing good to these animals? He said, “There is a reward in doing well to every living thing. [38] .

Hunting and fishing for food is permitted in Islam; however, the Prophet, upon him be blessings and peace, cursed anyone who uses a living creature as a target, taking a life for mere sport. [39] Likewise he forbade that one prolong an animal’s slaughter.40 He declared, “God has prescribed the doing of good toward every thing: so when you kill, kill with goodness, and when you slaughter, slaughter with goodness. Let each one of you sharpen his blade and let him give ease to the animal he is slaughtering. [41] .

The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be blessings and peace, forbade that a fire be lit upon an anthill, and related that an ant once stung one of the prophets, who then ordered that the whole colony of ants be burned. God revealed to him in rebuke, “Because an ant stung you, you have destroyed a whole nation that celebrates God’s glory.”42 He once ordered a man who had taken the nestlings of a bird from their nest to return them whence he got them, to their mother which was trying to protect them. [43] He forbade that one needlessly and wrongfully cut down any tree which provides valuable shelter to humans or animals in the desert,”” and the aim of this prohibition may be understood as prevention of the destruction of valuable habitat for God’s creatures.

On the basis of the Prophetic commands and prohibitions, Muslim legal scholars have ruled that God’s creatures possess inviolability (hurmah) which pertains even in : war: The Prophet, upon him be peace and the blessing of God, forbade the killing of bees and any captured livestock, for killing them is a form of corruption included in what God has prohibited in His saying, ” And when he turns away, he hastens through the land to cause corruption therein and to destroy the crops and cattle: And God loves not corruption.” 45 For they are animals with the spirit of life, so it is not lawful to kill them in order to gall the enemy idolaters… And they are animals possessing inviolability just as do women and children. [46]

It is a distinctive characteristic of Islamic law that all animals have certain legal rights, enforceable by the courts. The following of the Prophetic traditions:

“The rights of livestock and animals with regard to their treatment by man: These t are that he spend on them the provision that their kinds require, even if they have aged or sickened such that no benefit comes from them; that he not burden them beyond what they can bear; that he not put them together with anything by which they would be injured, whether of their own kind or other species, and whether by breaking their bones or butting or wounding; that he slaughter them with kindness if he slaughters them, and neither flay their skins nor break their bones until their f bodies have become cold and their lives have passed away; that he not slaughter their young within their sight; that he set them apart individually; that he make comfortable their resting places and watering places; that he put their males and females together during their mating seasons; that he not discard those which he takes in hunting; and neither shoot them with anything that breaks their bones nor bring about their destruction by any means that renders their meat unlawful to eat. [47]

Islam looks upon these created beings, both animals and plants, in two ways:

1) As living beings in their own right, glorifying God and attesting to His power and wisdom;

2) As creatures subjected in the service of man and other created beings, fulfilling vital roles in the development of this world. <![CDATA[
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What Are the Lessons to Be Learned from Today World?

What Are the Lessons to Be Learned from Today World?

By Editorial Staff

The Glorious Qur’an did not adopt a single way of conveying the message of monotheism to people, but it employed different types of speech to teach people their religion. One of the top methods used by the Qur’an is narration of the stories of the preceding world nations who came before the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

The Qur’an narrated to us detailed parts of their stories, their stances with their Prophets, the places where they raised up and the reward or punishment of God to them in relation to their religious practice and following.

The examples of the narration method are widespread in the Qur’an, such as the stories of Adam and Eve, Prophet Nuh (Noah, peace be upon him), Ibrahim (Abraham, peace be upon him), Musa (Moses, peace be upon him), `Isa (Jesus, peace be upon him), etc. Almighty Allah has used this method to let us learn lessons from the life of those people. He (Glory be to Him) says,

There was certainly in their stories a lesson for those of understanding. Never was the Qur’an a narration invented, but a confirmation of what was before it and a detailed explanation of all things and guidance and mercy for a people who believe. (Yusuf 12:111)

The same should be done nowadays with the current events befalling the world. We need to have a scrutinizing look on what is going around and contemplate the signs of God’s Command over us. As Muslims, we believe in a creator who brought this universe into existence from nothing and He is the utmost Controller of its affair. Nothing happens here or there except with His permission. He is the All-Powerful and Omnipotent.

In the below video, Dr. Abdullah Hakim Quick notifies us of the significance of taking lessons from the events happening in the world. He tells that the course of events indicates essential need of people to God all the time.   Repeated idea


Source: Taken from One Islam Productions Youtube Channel

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Agriculture in Islamic Civilization: A Green Revolution in Pre-Modern Times

Agriculture in Islamic Civilization: A Green Revolution in Pre-Modern Times

Agriculture in Islamic Civilization

As early as the 9th century, an innovative agriculture system became central to economic life and the organization of production in the Muslim land.

History usually conveys the notion that the agricultural revolution took place in recent times in the form of rotation of crops, advanced irrigation techniques, plant improvements, etc., and that some of those changes took place only in the last couple of centuries in Europe, whilst others are occurring today. It is explained that such revolutionary changes fed the increasing world population, released vast numbers of workers from the land and allowed agriculture to produce a capital surplus, which was invested in industry, thus leading to the industrial revolution of the 18th-19th century.

This is the accepted wisdom, until one comes across works on Muslim agriculture and discovers that several of those changes took place over ten centuries ago in the Muslim world, some of them being the foundations of important modern innovations. Watson, Glick and Bolens,[1] in particular, show that major breakthroughs were achieved by Muslim farmers on the land, and by Muslim scholars with their treatises on the subject. Thus, as with other subjects, prejudice distorts history, and the achievements in the world of Islam ten centuries ago are covered up. This point is raised by Cherbonneau as long as the 1940s when he wrote: “It is admitted with difficulty that a nation in majority of nomads could have had known any form of agricultural techniques other than sowing wheat and barley. The misconceptions come from the rarity of works on the subject… If we took the bother to open up and consult the old manuscripts, so many views will be changed, so many prejudices will be destroyed.”[2]

The Islamic Agricultural Revolution

As early as the 9th century, an innovative agricultural system became central to economic life and the organization of production in the Muslim land. The great Islamic cities of the Near East, North Africa and Spain, Artz explains, were supported by an elaborate agricultural system that included extensive irrigation and an expert knowledge benefiting from some of the most advanced agricultural methods known so far. The Muslims reared the finest horses and sheep and cultivated the best orchards and vegetable gardens. They knew how to fight insect pests, how to use fertilizers, and they were experts at grafting trees and crossing plants to produce new varieties[3]. Glick defines the Muslim agricultural revolution in the introduction of new crops, which, combined with extension and intensification of irrigation, created a complex and varied agricultural system, whereby a greater variety of soil types were put to efficient use. In this system, fields that had been yielding one crop annually at most were capable of yielding three or more crops, in rotation. As a result of such intensive agriculture, agricultural production responded to the demands of an increasingly sophisticated and cosmopolitan urban population by providing the towns with a variety of products unknown elsewhere, for example, in Northern Europe. [4] Scott, on his part, considered that the agricultural system of the Spanish Muslims, in particular, was “the most complex, the most scientific, the most perfect, ever devised by the ingenuity of man.” [5]

Such advancement of Muslim farming, according to Bolens, was owed to the adaptation of agrarian techniques to local needs, and to “a spectacular cultural union of scientific knowledge from the past and the present, from the Near East, the Maghreb, and Andalusia. A culmination subtler than a simple accumulation of techniques, it has been an enduring ecological success, proven by the course of human history.” [6] A variety of fertilizers were used according to a well-advanced methodology; whilst a maximum amount of moisture in the soil was preserved. [7] Soil rehabilitation was constantly cared for, and preserving the deep beds of cropped land from erosion was, as Bolens explains, “the golden rule of ecology”, and was “subject to laws of scrupulous careful ecology. “ [8]

The success of Islamic farming also lay in hard work. No natural obstacle was sufficiently formidable to check the enterprise and industry of the Muslim farmer. He tunneled through the mountains, his aqueducts went through deep ravines, and he leveled with infinite patience and labor he leveled the rocky slopes of the sierra in Spain[9]. Watson sums up by arguing that the rise of productivity of agricultural land and sometimes of agricultural labor was due to the introduction of higher yielding new crops and better varieties of old crops, through more specialized land use which often centered on the new crops, through more intensive rotations which the new crops allowed, through the concomitant extension and improvement of irrigation, through the spread of cultivation into new or abandoned areas, and through the development of more labor intensive techniques of farming. These changes, themselves, were positively affected by changes in other sectors of the economy: growth of trade, enlargement of the money economy, increasing specialization of factors of production in all sectors, and with the growth of population and its increasing urbanization. [10]

From Andalusia to the Far East, from the Sudan to Afghanistan, irrigation remained central, and the basis of all agriculture and the source of all life. [11] The ancient systems of irrigation the Muslims inherited were in an advanced state of decay. [12] The Muslims repaired them and constructed new ones; besides devising new techniques to catch, channel, store and lift the water, and making ingeniously combine available devices. [13] All of the books of Filaha (agriculture), whether Maghribi, Andalusian, Egyptian, Iraqi, Persian or Yemenite, Bolens points out, insist meticulously on the deployment of equipment and on the control of water. [14]

Agricultural Machines and Construction

Water that was captured through a variety of ways was then successively channeled, stored and lifted using the different techniques and varied devices for each operation. Irrigation became cheap, affecting lands previously impossible or uneconomic to irrigate. [15] Irrigated fields yielded as many as four harvests annually, [16] which, as in Spain, laid the foundations for the country’s prosperity. [17] Damming of rivers to provide households and mills with power, and for irrigation, was also widespread. [18] The introduction of the nuria (a water lifting device) in any district has always had revolutionary consequences upon agricultural productivity. Being relatively inexpensive to build and simple to maintain, the nuria enabled the development of entire huertas that were intensively irrigated. [19]

In Cordoba, Al-Shaqundi (13th century) speaks of 5000 nurias (possibly including both lifting and milling devices) on the Guadalquivir. [20] Some are still in use, as at La Nora, six km from the Murcia city Centre, where although the original wheel has been replaced by a steel one, the ancient system is otherwise virtually unchanged. [21] In general, these Islamic irrigation techniques that were transferred to Spain were adapted to specific natural conditions. [22] The Muslims, Forbes holds, should be credited with important developments of irrigation in the Western Mediterranean. They did not just extend the irrigated area in Spain and Sicily, but also knew how to drain rivers and how to irrigate their fields by systems of branch channels with an efficient distribution of the available water. [23] They also captured rainwater in trenches on the sides of hills or as it ran down mountain gorges or into valleys; surface water was taken from springs, brooks, rivers and oases, whilst underground water was tapped by creating new springs, or digging wells. [24]

Notes and References

[1] See A. M. Watson: Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World, Cambridge University Press, 1983; A. M. Watson, “The Arab Agricultural Revolution and its Diffusion”, in The Journal of Economic History 34 (1974), pp. 8-35; Thomas Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages, Princeton University Press, 1979; T. Glick, Irrigation and Hydraulic Technology: Medieval Spain and its Legacy, Varorium, Aldershot, 1996; L. Bolens, Les méthodes culturales au Moyen Age d’après les traités d’agronomie andalous: Traditions et techniques, Geneva, 1974; L. Bolens, Agronomes Andalous du Moyen Age, Geneva/Paris, 1981 and L. Bolens, “L’Eau et l’irrigation d’après les traités d’agronomie Andalous au Moyen Age (XI-XIIèmes siècles)”, Options Méditerranéenes, vol. 16, December 1972, pp. 65-77.

[2] A. Cherbonneau: “Kitab al-Filaha of Abu Khayr al-Ichbili”, in Bulletin d‘Etudes Arabes (Alger), vol. 6, 1946, pp. 130-44; p. 130. See also Abu al-Khayr al-Ishbili, Kitâb al-Filâh’a ou Le Livre de la culture [by Aboû ‘l-Khayr ach-Chadjdjâr al-Ichbîlî], notice et extraits traduits par Auguste Cherbonneau, éclaicissements par Henri Pérès, Alger: Carbonel, 1946.

[3] Frederick B. Artz, The Mind of the Middle Ages, The University of Chicago Press, 1980, 3rd edition revised, p. 150.

[4] T. Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages,  p. 78.

[5] S. P. Scott, History of the Moorish Empire in Europe, J.B. Lippincott Company, London, 1904, vol. 3, p. 598.

[6] L. Bolens, “Agriculture”, in Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non Western Cultures, edited by Helaine Selin, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1997, pp. 20-2.

[7] T. Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages,  p. 75.

[8] L. Bolens, “Agriculture”, op. cit., p. 22.

[9] S.P. Scott, History, op. cit., p.604.

[10] A. Watson, Agricultural Innovation, op. cit., pp. 2-3.

[11] L. Bolens, “Irrigation”, in Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non Western Cultures, op. cit., pp. 450-2; p. 451.

[12] A. M. Watson, Agricultural Innovation, op. cit., p. 104.

[13] Ibid, pp. 109-10.

[14] L. Bolens, “Irrigation”, op. cit., p. 451.

[15] A. M. Watson, Agricultural Innovation, op. cit., p. 104.

[16] T. Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain, op. cit., p. 75.

[17] D. R. Hill, Islamic Science and Engineering, Edinburgh University Press, 1993, p. 161.

 [18] Ibid, pp. 159-69.

 [19] T. Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain, op. cit., p. 74.

[20] Al-Saqundi, “Elogio del Islam espanol”, p. 105; quoted in T. Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain, op. cit., p.75.

[21] D. R. Hill, Islamic Science and Engineering, op. cit., p. 97.

[22] E. Lévi Provençal, Histoire de l‘Espagne Musulmane, Maisonneuve, Paris, 1953, 3 vols.; vol. 3, p. 279.

[23] R. J. Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1965, 2nd revised edition, vol. 2, p. 49.

[24] A. M. Watson, Agricultural Innovation, op. cit. p. 107.


Source: Taken with modifications from

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