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Son of Man or Son of God?

Gospel’s writers, and the authors of Epistles as well, wrote much of what they wrote according to their own beliefs which they believed and were inserted into the Word of God.

A closer examination of the texts of the New Testament compels us to raise some questions: as to whether Christ was the Son of God or the Son of man due to the much repetition of the phrase “son of man ” a lot in the Gospels ?!

Strangely enough some of gospels authors hasten to put state this doctrine from the very start same as gospels of and Luke and Mark who started his gospel saying:

“The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.” (Mark 1: 1)

Mark reaches such a serious conclusion from his own even before recounting the Lord’s own words! Why did he not let us judge that Jesus was the Son of God ourselves?! It seems that Mark and other writers were influenced by a certain doctrine that permeated their respective where the followers of Christ deviated from the right path and adopted corrupt and heretic doctrines including the belief that “Jesus was the son of God Almighty!!,

These also include:

“And when Jesus saw great multitudes about Him, He gave a command to depart to the other side. Then a certain scribe came and said to Him, “Teacher, I will follow You wherever You go. And Jesus said to him, “Foxes have holes and birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay His head.” (Matthew 8: 18-20)

“But that you may know that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins” —then He said to the paralytic, “Arise, take up your bed, and go to your house. And he arose and departed to his house. But when the multitudes saw it, they marvelled, and glorified God, which had given such power unto men.”(Matthew 9:6-7)

It seems also that the words that made Christ the “son of God “is not one of the words of Jesus himself; if Christ was the son of God, why did the Gospels mention the two conflicting phrases for Christ being “the son of God” and” the son of man” at the same time ?!

Such conflict, which is impossible to reason, got the Gospels in many contradictions. Jesus allowed himself to be insulted by others and anyone insulted him may be forgiven as he insulted the Son of man!:

“Anyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man, it will be forgiven him; but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit, it will not be forgiven him, either in this age or in the age to come.” (Matthew 12: 32).

A clear contradiction may be seen in the gospels view of Jesus Christ; many crowds and righteous people like John the Baptist and Elijah realized that Jesus was the Son of man, but a few strange texts deny them this fact which they adopted for long!

“When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am? And they said, Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets. He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am? And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven. And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Then charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was Jesus the Christ.”(Matthew 16: 13-20)

Therefore, Mark felt embarrassed to call Jesus “the son of God”when Jesus foretold the news of his crucifixion and his sufferings:

“And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. (Mark, 8:31)

Proper reasonable thinking firmly denies that Jesus was the sons of God Almighty due to the blasphemous consequences such doctrine may result in attribution to shortcoming for God. According to such doctrine God has a wife, he grows, he dies and be inherited and incarnate. It also means the transfer of the creature’s qualities to the creator.

Therefore, we find the Quran, with its noble teachings, glorifies God and denies partners to him in any case:

“[He is] Originator of the heavens and the earth. How could He have a son when He does not have a companion and He created all things? And He is, of all things, Knowing”.(6:101

“He has not taken a wife or a son” (72: 3)

Allah Almighty has denied himself of polytheism, categorically:

“Say, “He is Allah, [who is] One, Allah, the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any equivalent.”.(112: 2

“And say, “Praise to Allah, who has not taken a son and has had no partner in [His] dominion and has no [need of a] protector out of weakness; and glorify Him with [great] glorification.”(17:111)

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God’s Names in the Bible

God’s Names in the Bible

Many names of God are common in the Bible. However, a short look at them make us realize the clear contradiction Jews and Christians got in regarding their God.

When asked about the name of God in the Bible, especially in the Old Testament, Christian thinkers answer that “the God of the Jews or the Old Testament is such and such”, and the image in our minds reveals that the God of the Old Testament is different from the God of the New Testament. Upon such contradiction about were the two from Two gods or one God!

On the Jewish side, we find the same thing. They monopolize the name of God. The name of God – according to the Jews – is sacred, and it is not proper for the common people to utter it and it should be pronounced by a certain sect of them only!

God's Names In The Bible

“God said moreover to Moses, “You shall tell the children of Israel this, ‘Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’ This is my name forever, and this is my memorial to all generations.” (Exodus 3:15)

By asking about the many names of God in the Old Testament, they show that they are only titles, and do not denote multiple deities. Among these names mentioned in the Bible and in the Old Testament in particular:

Elohim (אלוהים)

Many Bible commentators claim that it is a word which denotes the name of God in the plural. Among the texts that mention such a Hebrew name of God are:

“In the beginning God (Elohim according to Hebrew version) created the heaven and the earth..” (Genesis 1: 1)


This name denotes “master” or the owner of heaven and earth.

“My soul, you have said to Yahweh, “You are my Lord. Apart from you I have no good thing.”.” (Psalm 16:2).

Eil Shadai (שַׁדַּ֔י (šad·day)

Meaning “al-the most Powerful/ The Almighty Lord”:

(Genesis 1:17):

“And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, Jehovah appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am God Almighty (אֲנִי־ (’ă·nî-) אֵ֣ל (’êl) שַׁדַּ֔י (šad·day)); walk before me, and be thou perfect”


It is one of the most important names of God in the Bible that a sect called Jehovah’s Witnesses, a mixture of Judaism and Christianity calling for God as having only this name has emerged,! Among those texts contained it are:

“ “You are my witnesses,” says Yahweh/ Jehovah, “With my servant whom I have chosen; that you may know and believe me, and understand that I am he. Before me there was no God formed, neither will there be after me.” (Isaiah 43: 10-13)

“God said moreover to Moses, “You shall tell the children of Israel this, ‘Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’ This is my name forever, and this is my memorial to all generations.” (Exodus 3:15)

There are also many other names which include:

 -Jehovah/YAHWEH-JIREH,” God will manage” (Genesis 22:14)

– Jehovah/YAHWEH-RAPHA “The Healing Lord” (Exodus 15:26)

– Yahweh/YAHWEH-NISSI “The Lord is our memorial” (Exodus 17:15)

-Jehovah/YAHWEH-M’KADDESH “The Lord who sanctifies” (Leviticus 20: 8; Ezekiel 28:37)

-Jehovah/YAHWEH-SHALOM “The Lord, our peace” (Judges 6:24 (Genesis 2: 4; Psalm 59: 5), meaning the Lord of lords.

-Jehovah/YAHWEH-TSIDKENU “Jehovah/Yahweh (The Lord) (is) our righteousness” (Jeremiah 16:33)

-Jehovah/YAHWEH-ROHI/My Spirit “The Lord is my Shepherd (Psalm 23: 1)

-Jehovah/YAHWEH-SHAMMAH “The Lord Is There” (Ezekiel 48:35) – (Ezekiel 8-11) – (Ezekiel 44: 1-4).

-Jehovah/YAHWEH-SABAOTH “Lord of hosts” (Isaiah 1:24; Psalm 46: 7)

-EL ELYON “Higher” (Deuteronomy 19:26), ,Meaning “the Most High God”.

– EL ROI “God of Vision/seeing” (Genesis 16:13)

-EL-OLAM “The Eternal God” (Psalm 103: 90)

-EL-GIBHOR “God Almighty” (Isaiah 6: 9) – (Revelation 19:15).


In fact, a lot of confusion prevailed in this aspect of the two sects of Jews and Christians. They mixed the names of God with His attributes, so you hardly find a disciplinary measure for distinction between them; we find out that they have considered many of God’s actions and attributes as his names!

We, also, feel confusion on another side. The translators of the Bible were confused about the name of god so that one of the two groups may not monopolize it, or the New Testament supporters may not be disdained or rejected.

Therefore, translators resorted to a general word, which is “Lord or God”. In the Arabic translations of the two Testaments God names were translated to the Arabic general word “Al-Rab (i.e. God).” They have thus escaped from a stalemate to a more severe stalemate, falling into absurd justifications for the Trinity by claiming that all divine names in the Old-Testament should be given to Jesus (who was not yet born) or the Holy Spirit. In his book “The Names of God in the Bible”, Dr Minis even claimed that all God’s names in the Old Testament should at least bear the prophecy of trinity!

As for Islam, we do not find embarrassment in the multiplicity of the Names of God Almighty. What, however, is forbidden is to mix them with polytheism in any form like the belief that they denote different gods or the multiplicity of Gods as Christians believe. Allah Almighty said in the Qur’an:

“And to Allah belong the best names, so invoke Him by them. And leave [the company of] those who practice deviation concerning His names. They will be recompensed for what they have been doing..” (180: 7)

“Say, “Call upon Allah or call upon the Most Merciful. Whichever [name] you call – to Him belong the best names.” And do not recite [too] loudly in your prayer or [too] quietly but seek between that an [intermediate] way. “.(17:110)

“He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the best names. Whatever is in the heavens and earth is exalting Him. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.” (24:59)

The People of the Book, Jews and Christians, fell into deviation and polytheism in the names and attributes of God. So, we read in the Bible that God cries, regrets, and fears! We see manifestations of degrade for God in likening him to creatures!

It is even worse that Christians, who followed the way of the pagans, polytheists and idol-worshipers, translated the word “Lord or God” to refer to Christ or made Christ a partner or a match to Allah.

The Muslim Imam At-Tabari, (a well-known Muslim interpreter of the Noble Qur’an) says about the interpretation of the aforementioned Qur’anic verse (180: 7): “Their polytheistic approach in the names of God was through giving the names of God to their gods or idols. They increased in them and decreased them.  They even called one of their gods “Lat”, deriving it from the word “Allah”, and the other god “Uza”, as a derivation from the name of God, “Al-Aziz.”

After this verse, God has shown that there is a nation among other nations that did not fall into such aberration and delusion; it is the nation of Islam.

Muslims believed in God as one Lord and did not fall in deviation as regard to His names or attributes. They kept him away from any shortfall and singled him with worship:

“And whoever created us will lead a nation to be guided by truth, and through it they will be righteous” (181: 7)

The Qur’an, moreover, justly recommend a group of the People of the Book before Islam, who followed Moses, peace be upon him, and did not fall into such aberration and delusion:

“And among the people of Moses is a community which guides by truth and by it establishes justice.” (159: 7)


-Dr. Pastor Mounis Abdel Nour, God’s Names in the Holy Bible, Cairo.

-The Holy Quran (via /

-The Bible (via


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Can Biblical Manuscripts Stand Historical Methodologies for Text-Criticism?

For longو Christians have been proud of their Bible in terms of source and credibility. However, this claim does not stand in front of the historical scientific criticism of manuscripts.

A Brief History of the Bible Manuscripts and Their Dates

The nature of the research here calls us to embark on a historical overview of some of the Biblical manuscripts and their dates. Here are some of them:

– Vatican Manuscript (03) B-Codex Vaticanus:

It is preserved in the Vatican. It was written in Greek by the command of King Constantine in 328 AD, and then transferred to the Vatican; it is considered by the introduction of the Jesuit monastic as the best of Greek manuscripts. It was found in 1481 AD, and dates back to the fourth century AD.

The manuscript of Alexandria (02) A- Codex Alexandrinus:

This copy has been preserved in the British Museum in London, and dates back to the fourth century AD, as some claim. It contained 820 pages, of which 773 pages remain.

The Codex Sinaiticus Codex: (01) A-Codex Sinaiticus:

It was discovered by Constantine Chanderov (born January 1815) in 1859 AD. It dates back to the fourth or fifth century AD. Written by a bishop of Caesarea in 231 AD. It contains the New Testament except (Mark 16: 9-2, John 7: 53, 8: 11). It is is now preserved in the British Museum in London, under No. 43725.

Prophet Moses lived in the fifteenth century B.C, and between him and the manuscripts, except for the Qumran manuscript, nearly sixteen centuries!

Codex Ephraemi: (04)

It includes the whole New Testament except for the Second Epistle of Thessalonica and John II, as well as more than half of the Old Testament. It dates back to about 450 AD.

There are many other manuscripts, among which are the following:

Qumran Manuscripts:

Newly discovered and dates back to the first and second centuries BC. These manuscripts were discovered in 1947 by a shepherd in Wadi Qumaran, Palestine, and then transferred to Dr. John Trever at the American University of Oriental Research in Jerusalem. He made an extraordinary effort to photograph a manuscript of Isaiah’s chapter of 24 feet long and 10 inches wide, then sent the pictures to Dr. Albright, Johns-Hopkins University, America, who was considered the dean of clerical excavations.

The chapters of the Old Testament included a complete manuscript of the book of Isaiah dating back to the year 125 BC, and another an incomplete manuscript for a Chapter of Isaiah as well, and a third manuscript of the book of Ezekiel.

Nash Manuscript:

It was written in the second century AD, and it contains only the Ten Commandments.

John Rylinds Papyrus Manuscript:

It contains parts of the Old Testament, and dates back to the second century AD.

There are about 5300 manuscripts of the New Testament in the Greek language, in addition to 24,000 manuscripts of parts of the New Testament.

Reasons for the Corruption of the Bible Manuscripts

Despite the large number of these manuscripts, the difference between them is so great that there is no coincidence for one  manuscript and another. This is testified to by the difference between Christian themselves, Catholics and Protestants, on some of the chapters in terms of rejection and consideration for them as Apocrypha, and the difference over the number of chapters.

Likewise, the human hands interfered intentionally, and unintentionally- sometimes- with transcription errors in them. It was also spoiled by the factors of nature as to obliteration which forced editors to make substitution, and guesswork of some of the biblical texts.

In addition, according to the agreement of many Christian theorists, many of the manuscripts are not written by the hands of their authors, but they are attributed to them as they are. They are, moreover, not the original manuscript of the scriptures descended to prophets from the heavens. Could translations replace the original text ?! A translation,according to linguists, cannot be the original in no way, no matter how accurate it was.

What prompts us to say that the Bible was distorted those heretic doctrines inserted into the word of God as to the ascription of a son to God and the claim of trinity referring to three gods in one!.

Human interference in the Bible is so clear. The Jews deleted all that condemn them– as to the killing of Isaiah and many of the prophets!

That is why we find the Eastern Church has fallen into a trouble when it saw a text transmitted to Western translations, conveying the doctrine of trinity with the loss of the same text in the original manuscripts of the Bible! :

“…,and these three are one and those who bear witness are three on earth, the Spirit, Water, and Blood”.

According to the Catholic version of the Bible This text was not mentioned in the manuscripts before the fifteenth century, nor in the old translations, nor in the best origins of the Latin translation, and it is more likely that it is only a comment written in the margin and then inserted into the text while it was being transmitted to the West.

In History of the Bible S. Miller and R. Huber say:

“As to the oldest books that have reached us: No one knows when the books of the Old and New Testaments were combined in one volume in one volume, but the oldest two copies of the Bible arrived us (almost complete) dating back to the middle of the fourth century. They are today known as the Vatican manuscript and the Sinai manuscript, and they contain most of the Septuagint version (a translation of the Hebrew text of the Bible, which became an accredited translation for the Church of the Old Testament. It was translated in stages between the third century to the first century BC). They contain the chapters that were deleted by the Jews, and the Protestants considered them to be apocalyptic. The Vatican version lacks the chapter of the Maccabees, and both manuscripts contain all the chapters of the New Testament (27 books). The Sinai manuscript also contains the letter of Barnabas and the shepherd of Hermas. As for the Sinaitic version, it has a more interesting history. It was written in Egypt in the late 4th century and preserved in the Monastery of Saint Catherine”.

Prophet Moses, peace be upon him, lived in the fifteenth century B.C, and between him and the manuscripts, except for the Qumran manuscript, nearly sixteen centuries.

As for the rest of the manuscripts, the closest manuscript to Jesus dates back to nearly one century after his death. Furthermore, Manuscripts do not agree in many of their texts.

In his book, An Introduction to Biblical Criticism, R. Y. Dawoud says:

 “We do not possess the original texts of the Gospels, because these texts were inscribed and errors were made in them during the inscribing-process. We often have multiple readings of one verse through the various manuscripts that have reached us, so what reading should we consider? Therefore we must rely on the science of text-criticism to various manuscripts to reach the original texts. The science of text-criticism aims to reach the original text as close as possible. The first work is to collect all documents of the New Testament and arrange them. The review of manuscripts should not be restricted to the Greek manuscripts. Rather, it should include all manuscripts that contain a translation of the New Testament Which is used by Christians in the early centuries (Latin-Syriac, or Coptic)”.

S. Miller and R. Huber say: “Doubt also touched upon the sources of the books of the New Testament and those who wrote them in the early years of biblical criticism. Initially scholars began to believe that not all of the letters attributed to Paul had been written by him, so perhaps some of them were written by his disciples who borrowed his name to give greater importance to their writings. Soon, many inquires emerged about who really wrote the epistles of Paul? Scientists also began wondering about who wrote the Gospels and when, saying that the names of the preachers or evangelists: Matthew, Luke, and John were applied only in the 2nd  century, and they may not be accurate. Accordingly they examined the Gospels and their sources to reach their real authors!”.

There is a difference between maintaining the original text and translation to it only, as the case with the Gospels who lose their original text.”

One looking into the Gospels today, can see the defect that afflicted them in terms of contradicting narratives and their narrators. In his book An Introduction to the New Testament, F. Aziz says, “Who has written the Gospel of John? This question is difficult to answer, and the answer to it requires extensive study which will often end with the phrase: Only God knows who wrote this gospel.”


-The Catholic version of the Bible, 3rd ed, Beirut, Dar Al-Mashriq.

-Miller, R. Huber, In the History of the Bible.

-Dawoud. Introduction to Biblical-Criticism, Beirut, Dar Al-Mashriq.


-Wikipedia encyclopedia

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Shocking Historical Facts about the “Last Supper”!

The term “Last Supper”, “Holy Communion”, “The Lord’s Supper”” or “Passover Meal” are commonly used in Christianity and are turned into ecclesiastical rituals common in most churches of the world.

The Lord’s Supper or the Last Supper – in Christianity – refers to the dinner of Jesus peace be upon him – with his disciples and sharing with them bread and wine – before the crucifixion – as alleged.

Many Christian sources point out that this event carries symbolic elements through which Jesus tried to send a certain message  to his followers. The wine is claimed to be his blood that will be shed for mankind and bread is his body that would be crucified and broken for humanity and its survival.

Such event has become a basic ritual of the Church: the Divine Liturgy and the Eucharist. A day was dedicated to celebrate it and was called “Maundy Thursday,” or in some churches as “Secret Supper” for establishing the secret of priesthood and the Eucharist. According to the Christian faith “Whoever ate such bread and drank this wine inevitably dissolve to be the flesh of Christ and the wine to be his blood”.

The institution of the Eucharist is recorded in the three Synoptic Gospels and in Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians. The Bible gives the following account of the incident:

“I am the living bread that came down from heaven. Whoever eats this bread will live forever. This bread is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.” (John, 51: 6).

In (1 Corinthians 23: 11-26):

“For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you: that the Lord Jesus on the same night in which He was betrayed took bread; And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes”.

In the Gospel of John: (51: 6):

“I am the living bread that came down from heaven. Whoever eats this bread will live forever. This bread is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.” 

“Then he took a cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. I tell you, I will not drink from this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.” (Matthew 26:27-29).

However, a quick contemplative look at such evangelical additional accounts of the Last Supper shows them as mere “imaginative dramatic events and plots” added by the storyteller’s imagination. Such events allude to the killing and crucifixion of Jesus who, inevitably, was raised to the heavens and was not killed or crucified, let alone the conflicting narrations of the incident in the Gospels.

There is no mention of the term “Last Supper” in the Qur’an when it tells about the story of Jesus (peace be upon him). The Qur’an, however, refers to another incident in which Jesus’ disciples asked him to drop for them a table from heaven as a sign for them of his truthfulness:

“[And remember] when the disciples said, “O Jesus, Son of Mary, can your Lord send down to us a table [spread with food] from the heaven? [Jesus] said,” Fear Allah, if you should be believers.” They said, “We wish to eat from it and let our hearts be reassured and know that you have been truthful to us and be among its witnesses.” Said Jesus, the son of Mary, “O Allah, our Lord, send down to us a table [spread with food] from the heaven to be for us a festival for the first of us and the last of us and a sign from You. And provide for us, and You are the best of providers.” Allah said, “Indeed, I will sent it down to you, but whoever disbelieves afterwards from among you – then indeed will I punish him with a punishment by which I have not punished anyone among the worlds.”.(2:112-115)

Al-Tabari, a well-known Interpreter of the Qur’an, expounds these verses saying: “They asked him a sign for answering their call so that they may be sure of Allah’s ability over all things and their hearts be assured, and witness it and testify that God have descended it as a proof of His right to be worshiped as the sole Lord and Jesus as a real Prophet. Jesus replied:“ Fear God if you are believers”.

They asked the sign to be “Eid” (An annual or weekly rite). Al-Tabari says, “They asked it to be a feast on which they and successive generations may worship and pray for him”.

Qur’an exegetes differed as to what the “table” contained, but they all agree that it never contained wine as the gospels claim for it was prohibited according to the Old-Testament and the New-Testament. Al-Tabari notes: “It is possible that it was fish and bread, and it is possible that it was paradise-fruit, and any other thing else. Whatever, the case there is no harm not to know it”.

The Qur’anic account of the event states that the disciples of Jesus were the ones who asked the table from Jesus, peace be upon him, not Jesus who invited them to it as the Gospels claim. Moreover, the account of the event by Paul attributes a blasphemous talk to Jesus when he said: “The more you eat this bread and drink this cup, you tell of the death of the Lord (God) until he comes back.” How could Jesus claim to be, according to the Bible, a god who would die!

On the contrary, in the Qur’anic account of the story of the table we touch the awe Jesus had while addressing his Lord to descend it. Jesus humbly admits himself to be a worshiper to his Lord and a slave who needs support. He condemns the disciples (presumed to be Apostles by Christians) for irrespective ask of the sign of the table from the Lord as a proof of His truthfulness. Allah (God) Almighty reminds us of such majestic dialogue between Jesus and his Lords in the following words,

“And [beware the Day] when Allah will say, “O Jesus, Son of Mary, did you say to the people, ‘Take me and my mother as deities besides Allah?’” He will say, “Exalted are You! It was not for me to say that to which I have no right. If I had said it, You would have known it. You know what is within myself, and I do not know what is within Yourself. Indeed, it is You who is Knower of the unseen. I said not to them except what You commanded me – to worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them as long as I was among them; but when You took me up, You were the Observer over them, and You are, over all things, Witness. If You should punish them – indeed they are Your servants; but if You forgive them – indeed it is You who is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. Allah will say, “This is the Day when the truthful will benefit from their truthfulness.” For them are gardens [in Paradise] beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever, Allah being pleased with them, and they with Him. That is the great attainment. To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and whatever is within them. And He is over all things competent”. (5:120)


  1. Shalabi, A., Christianity.
  2. Wikipedia Site
  3. Al-Tabri, Jami Al-Bayan (Tafsir Al-Tabari)

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