By Arslan Mayda
Only one or rarely two of the few sperms which stuck onto this zona radiata manages to penetrate into the egg.
As all the living beings, human being is also created from a male and a female. Gametes (germ cells) of male and female are being coupled at the widest point of cervix within a time span of 12 to 48 hours and thus resulting in the formation of a new and different human zygote.
Although 300 to 600 million sperms set off at the beginning of this period in order to meet with ovule, only the predestined one of them enter into the egg.
For insemination to be possible, an average of 400 million sperms should be available at every ejaculation.
Only 300 to 500 of these sperms would reach at the spot where they couple with the egg (ovum) in tubes, for as much number of sperms as possible should encircle the egg in order for the zygote to be formed.
In case the number of ejaculated sperms would be around 60 to 70 million, only 60 to 70 of them would reach at the spot where they couple with the egg in tubes and this is one of the reasons of male infertility.
The 300 to 500 sperms which strive to enter into egg meet with the cell layer (corona radiata) which is being serially positioned around the zona radiata.
A liquid is secreted from this zona radiata which punctures the euchromosome 1 placed on tip of sperm.
Each of various enzymes set free following the puncture of euchromosome is assigned to overcome a separate obstacle before the sperm.
Duty of the hyaluronidase enzyme, for instance, is to puncture the outer cell layer (corona radiata) which is assigned to protect the egg.
Resultantly, the sperm passes through this cell layer and sticks onto the zona radiata (zona pellucida).
The quasi-trypsin dissolutive (proteolytic) enzymes are employed for overcoming the zona radiata.
Only one or rarely two of the few sperms which stuck onto this zona radiata manages to penetrate into the egg.
It has been estimated that plurality of sperms around the egg, contrary to their rarity, facilitates their entry into the egg. The sperm penetrates into the egg with its tail but tail membrane stays outside.
The protective membrane of the ovum (zona pellucida) starts diffusing calcium within the very first minutes of sperm’s penetration and resultantly, granules are released, receptors are exterminated and the egg becomes structurally transformed.
Consequently, a thick layer is formed over the protective membrane (zona pellucida) for prevention of penetration of another sperm. Following the sperm’s penetration into egg (cytoplasm), the “fusion” process starts.
Fusion is the unification process of sperm and egg cells (pronuclei) each of which are separately containing 23 chromosomes.
Thus, construction of a genetic library which is containing 46 chromosomes and being prerequisite of formation (creation) of a new human baby is completed.
Afterwards, the first mitotic division gives way to a double-celled zygote and the embryo starts forming while settling into the secure base of the uterus.
As the outcoming child is going to be a mixture, i.e., a genuine and particular blend of the genetic codes available in the inherited gene pool, he/she will have resemblance to his/her parents and thus to their reciprocal kins (paternal and maternal grandparents, uncles and aunts and etc.).
Prophet Muhammad and Genetics
Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, pointed in his various sayings and explanations to the fact that the baby in mother’s womb carries a number of genetic features (characteristics) which are being inherited from the parents: When a Jewish person asked Him, “what is man created from?” he replied: “Man is created from a blend (mixture) of zygotes of both man and woman.” Then the Jew said: “Moses as well said the same before you.”2
Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, also shed light onto the fact of resemblance or inheritance of character by way of genes: “Is bathing a must for women?” asked Umm Sulaim to the Prophet. “Yes, it is a must when her seminal fluid outflows and seen,” he replied. “Do women have wet dreams?” she asked. “May God grant you goodness! How otherwise a child resembles to his/her mother?” He replied.3
As seen and understood by His above hadith (saying), He who was the great teacher of mankind was the first person who said that women do also see wet dreams.
He has also been the first person who articulated the concept of “dominancy,” which wasn’t understood before 1850s. He said: “The child resembles to either side of the parents whose seminal fluid comes to the fore and surpasses the others in mother’s womb during the intercourse. If there is an equilibrium, then, resemblance is also in equilibrium for both sides.”4
“If, during the intercourse, seminal fluid of the man precedes and surpasses that of the woman, then, the child resembles to the father, and if seminal fluid of the woman precedes and surpasses that of the man, then, the child resembles to the mother.”5
“If seminal fluid of the woman surpasses that of the man, then, the child resembles to his/her maternal uncles, and, if seminal fluid of the man surpasses that of the woman, then, the child resembles to his/her paternal uncles.”6
In another one of His sayings, He points out to the fact that the recessive characters (features) in the grand ancestral gene pool would dominantly and collectively emerge after following a couple of generations: “A man having a blackish baby boy approached and said to the Prophet: “I am suspecting my wife.” “Do you have camels?” the Prophet asked him. “Yes,” he replied. “Then, how are their colors?” The Prophet asked. “Red.” “Is there any one with grey color among them?” “Yes, there is.” “Then, where did this grey color come from?” asked the Prophet. “Presumably from a line of its ancestors,” the man responded. “Here you are! This child of you is also presumed to be coming from a line of your ancestors,” the Prophet told the man.7
- An euchromosome zone enriched by lysosome enzymes is noticed on stem of a mature sperm cell. The lysosome enzymes penetrate into the egg cell and impregnate it.
- Ahmad Bin Hanbal, Aynee, Ramouz Al Ahadeeth, Kanz Al Ummal, Jami’ul Saghir.
- Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawoud, Aynee, Ahmad Bin Hanbal.
- Muslim, Ibn Majah.
- Bukhari, Ahmad Bin Hanbal.
- Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawoud.
- Abu Dawoud, Muslim, Ahmad Bin Hanbal, Ibn Majah.
Taken with slight editorial modifications from the Fountain Magazine: Issue 81 / May – June 2011.
Dr. Arslan Mayda is a medical doctor at Sifa Hospital in Izmir, Turkey.
By Aisha Abdelhamid
With Ramadan occurring in one of the hottest months of the year for those of us in the northern hemisphere, and one of the coldest times of the year for those in the southern hemisphere, our physical ability to handle weather extremes becomes an interesting topic to reflect upon.
Can you imagine the special situation required of our bodies to adapt to extreme changes in the weather? For example, if my sister, currently experiencing winter in southern Australia, visits me for the Eid in a Mediterranean Country during summer, she will experience a dramatic change in climate.
Her body must adapt to summer, and then she will return home, once again adjusting to winter. How do our bodies handle such changes?
In fact, Allah has provided us with very efficient systems for regulating our internal temperature, automatically maintaining a stable core body temperature in cold winters, warm summers, and wild swings between both extremes.
The normal core body temperature for a healthy human is around 37°C. However, this can vary by as much as +/- 0.6°C depending on the physical activity, metabolism, hormonal levels, and even the time of day.
Adapting to Cold Weather
In cold weather, if the core body temperature drops below 34.4°C, hypothermia occurs. If it continues declining, the temperature regulating system in the hypothalamus usually fails around 29.4°C, with death soon after.
Living in cold locations, humans undergo physical adaptation to increase internal heat production.
As observed by the German biologist Carl Bergmann in 1847, humans in cold regions have greater body mass than those in warm climates.
The process of metabolism, converting food to fuel in our body’s cells, is accompanied by heat production. Therefore, greater body mass is equivalent to more cells, which produce greater heat for protection from cold.
Additionally, Allah provides other long-term physical adaptations to cold, including increased basal metabolic rate, as well as heat-insulating fat surrounding vital organs. Changes in blood flow patterns are also noted among people living in cold climates.
In the short term, as when a sudden, drastic change in location to a cold climate occurs, physical acclimatization has also been wondrously designed into our body systems by Allah to protect us in this case.
Sensing a drastic change in climate, our bodies respond to protect core body temperature. First, vasoconstriction occurs, narrowing blood vessels near the skin’s surface.
By reducing blood flow to areas in closest contact with the cold, less heat is lost through radiation. However, if temperatures are below freezing, our bodies won’t maintain vasoconstriction, because frostbite would occur.
Consequently, the internal temperature system responds with vasodilation, dilating these same blood vessels, increasing warm blood flowing near the skin to protect from freezing.
Cycling continuously between vasoconstriction and vasodilation, the body attempts to protect both stable core body temperature and skin from freezing.
Shivering, a natural increase in small muscle activity also helps produce heat.
Adapting to Hot Weather
In hot weather, if the core body temperature rises to 40.6-41.7°C, hyperthermia occurs. This condition can be fatal within only a few days, due to internal organs deteriorating.
Though, Allah has also designed our bodies to protectively respond to heat. Radiation is responsible for reducing most excess body heat; but in hot, dry climates, evaporative cooling, or sweating, can be significantly more helpful.
As noted by Bergmann also, less massive bodies are the rule among individuals living closer to the equator.
This is due to the same relationship between metabolism and heat production, where less massive bodies have fewer cells, and thus produce less heat. As we see, Allah designs our bodies for our individual locations and circumstances.
As the weather heats up, body heat is radiated from our skin. First, bringing blood vessels closer to skin, vasodilation increases heat radiation from the body.
Then, sweating releases water to cool the skin as it evaporates. These processes cycle continuously to protect both a stable core body temperature and the skin from being damaged by heat.
However, sweating’s cooling efficiency is directly related to the degree of humidity in the air. When moisture content is high, sweat can’t readily evaporate. Without rapid evaporation, the cooling effect of sweating is reduced.
On the other hand, less body fluid is lost in high humidity conditions, protecting the body by retaining precious fluid and mineral salts.
In hot, dry weather, sweat evaporates quickly, providing an efficient cooling effect. Even though, rapid loss of water and salts from sweating is more significant in dry, desert conditions.
Over a quart of fluid an hour may be lost through sweating on a hot summer day in the desert. Replacing body fluids is critical to keep the body hydrated and replace lost mineral salts.
A lemonade juice with a bit of salt added can be a very healthy alternative to a commercial sport drink.
Adapting to Sudden Changes in Climate
With the sudden change of climates, a person going from a cold environment to a hot environment or vice versa experiences additional adaptations, provided by Allah for special protection in this case.
For example, when experiencing a hot weather within a period as short as a few days, the degree of salt in the sweat gradually decreases, and the volume of sweat increases.
The natural volume of a person’s urine decreases, additionally reserving precious body fluids and mineral salts.
Aisha Abdelhamid is a native of Long Beach, California, happily residing in Egypt with her husband, Mohamed. A syndicated writer for Important Media Network, Aisha often represents the Muslim perspective on EdenKeeper.org, an interfaith website exploring the relationship between faith and the natural environment.
Taken with slight editorial modifications from aboutislam.net
By Juan Cole
In his presidential campaign, Donald Trump notoriously said, “I think Islam hates us.” As is usual with this erratic, fact-free president, the assertion is not true.
If we take Muslim-Americans, who at about 3.4 million persons constitute some 1.1 percent of Americans, over 90% say they are proud to be Americans. Does that sound like hatred to you?
The conviction that Muslims are intrinsically hostile to the US comes in part from a misconception of Islam as a religion. I have tried to put some of the myths to rest in my new book. Muhammad: Prophet of Peace Amid the Clash of Empires.
You can’t generalize the world’s Muslims, since there are 1.5 billion of them, and they don’t have an over-all view of the United States. Some like American freedoms and principles but dislike US foreign policy toward issues such as Palestine. People in the eastern part of the Middle East have a negative view of the US under Trump. But a Muslim country like Senegal has a majority that views the US favorably and in Indonesia, the biggest Muslim country population-wise, the favorables are 48% to 43% unfavorable. France, Sweden, Germany and Spain are all more negative toward the US under Trump than are these two Muslim countries.
The fact is that Islam is an American religion. It has been on North American soil for centuries. Some of the emigrants to the New World from Spain in the 1500s forward were secret Muslims who had pro forma converted to escape persecution by the Inquisition. (Southern Spain was mostly Muslim for 800 years, but by 1492 the Castilian Catholics, having conquered all of the south, announced that Muslims and Jews would be expelled. Some managed to stay by an outward show of Catholic piety while they secretly practiced their original religion, becoming known as Moriscos).
Moreover, many of those enslaved and brought to the Americas by slavers were Muslim, in places like Brazil as well as in the United States. To the extent that the US was built in part by slave labor, it was built in part by Muslim labor.
From the 1880s, a significant emigration to the United States began in what is now Lebanon and Syria. Tens of thousands of Arabic-speakers came until the racist immigration law of 1924 stemmed the flow. About 10% of these immigrants were Muslim, and some founded mosques in the Midwest, in places like Cedar Rapids, Iowa and Dearborn, Michigan.
It is since 1965 that the Muslim-American community has grown to several million. The last 50 years of American history has seen substantial economic and cultural contributions to the US by Muslim-Americans. Just for an example, Elias Zerhouni served as head of the National Institutes of Health and presidential envoy for US scientific and medical exchanges with other countries. It is often forgotten just how many Muslim-American physicians there are, contributing mightily to the health and well-being of the nation.
The founder of the Muslim religion, the Prophet Muhammad, is someone whom you would think Americans would admire.
Here are five reasons why:
- Muhammad was a businessman, a long distance merchant who went up from western Arabia for trade in the Near Eastern provinces of the Roman Empire, to Palestine, Transjordan and Syria. A quarter of Americans have thought about forming a business, and a majority view even big business favorably.
- Muhammad encouraged people to practice spirituality. Here is what the Qur’an says about the subject: “Righteousness is not determined by facing East or West during prayer. Righteousness consists of the belief in God, the Day of Judgment, the angels, the Books of God, His Prophets; to give money for the love of God to relatives, orphans, the destitute, and those who are on a journey and in urgent need of money, beggars; to set free slaves and to be steadfast in prayer, to pay the religious tax (zakat) to fulfill one’s promises, and to exercise patience in poverty, in distress, and in times of war. Such people who do these are truly righteous and pious.” (Al-Baqarah 2:177 [Muhammad Sarwar) Some 75% of Americans say they are spiritual.
- Muhammad praised people of other religions as well as of his own. The Qur’an (Al-A`raf 7:159) says of Jews, “And among the people of Moses is a community which guides by truth and by it establishes justice.” It says of Christians (Al-Ma’idah 5:82) “you will find the nearest of them in love to the believers [Muslims] those who say, “We are Christians.” That is because among them are priests and monks and because they are not arrogant.” It could be critical of both communities for their political positions or what it sees as doctrinal lapses, but it also contains high praise for them. Americans have increasingly warm feelings toward members of other religions, and even their warmth toward Muslims has increased in recent years.
- The Qur’an insists on freedom of belief and condemns coercion of conscience (which it terms ‘fitna‘). The chapter of Jonah 10:99 addresses a Prophet Muhammad who despaired of getting through with his monotheistic message to the pagans, saying “And had your Lord had willed, whoever is on earth would have believed, all of them, all together. Then, [O Muhammad], would you coerce the people such that they become believers?” Elsewhere, in the chapter of Al-Baqarah 2: 256, the Qur’an says, “There is no compulsion in religion. Certainly, right has become clearly distinct from wrong. Whoever rejects false idols and believes in God has taken hold of the unbreakable, firm handle. God is All-hearing and knowing.” Famously, the First Amendment of the US Constitution forbids Congress from making any religion the official religion of the state and then imposing it on Americans, ensuring their freedom of conscience.
- The Qur’an urges turning the other cheek and wishing peace on persecutors who orally harass the believers. The chapter of the Gilded Ornaments (Al-Zukhruf) 43:89 says of the militant pagans who rejected the Prophet’s message, “yet pardon them, and say, ‘Peace!’ Soon they will know.” (Arberry). When, however, militant pagans launched aggressive war on the early community of believers in Medina, the Qur’an permitted them to defend themselves by taking up arms. But it warned against engaging in aggressive, expansionist warfare, holding that only defensive war is legitimate. The chapter of Al-Baqarah 2:190 says, “And fight in the way of God with those; who fight with you, but do not commit aggression: God does not love aggressors.” A majority of Americans also feels that sometimes war is necessary but that it would be wrong to launch a war if the US were not first attacked by the other side (the Iraq War seems to have strengthened this sentiment).
1400 years of Christian polemics have demonized Muhammad, but a dispassionate consideration of his life and message makes it clear that there is much for contemporary Americans to admire in his life and teachings.
Juan Cole is the founder and chief editor of Informed Comment and Richard P. Mitchell Professor of History at the University of Michigan. He is author of, among many other books, Muhammad: Prophet of Peace amid the Clash of Empires.
Taken with slight editorial modifications from Informed Comment.
By Dr. Bilal Philips
When a child is born, it has with it a natural belief in God. This natural belief is called in Arabic the “Fitrah”. If the child were left alone, it would grow up aware of God in His oneness, but all children are affected by the pressures of their environment whether directly or indirectly. The Prophet, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, reported that God said, “I created My servants in the right religion but the devils made them go astray.”
The Prophet also said, “Each child is born in a state of “Fitrah”, but his parents make him a Jew or a Christian. It is like the way an animal gives birth to a normal offspring. Have you noticed any (young animal) born mutilated before you mutilate them?”
So, just as the child’s body submits to the physical laws which God has put in nature, its soul also submits naturally to the fact that God is its Lord and Creator. But its parents try to make it follow their own way and the child is not strong enough in the early stages of its life to resist or oppose its parents. The religion which the child follows at this stage is one of custom and upbringing and God does not hold it to account or punish it for this religion. When the child matures in youth and clear proofs of the falsehood of his religion are brought to him, the adult must now follow the religion of knowledge and reason.” At this point the devils try their best to encourage him to stay as he is or to go further astray. Evils are made pleasing to him and he must now live in the midst of a struggle between his Fitrah and his desires in order to find the right road. If he chooses his Fitrah, God will help him overcome his desires even though it may take most of his life to escape, for many people enter Islam in their old age although most tend to do so before that.
Because of all these powerful forces fighting against the Fitrah God chose certain righteous men and revealed to them clearly the right path in life. These men whom we call prophets were sent to help our Fitrah defeat its enemies. All the truths and good practices present in societies around the world today came from their teachings, and if it were not for their teachings, there would be no peace or safety in the world at all. For example, the laws of most Western countries are based on the “Ten Commandments” of Prophet Moses, like “Thou shalt not steal” and “Thou shalt not kill” etc., even though they claim to be “secular” governments, free from the influence of religion.
Thus, it is man’s duty to follow the way of the prophets since it is the only way which is truly in harmony with his nature. He should also be very careful not to do things simply because his parents and their parents did it, especially if knowledge reaches him that these practices are wrong. If he does not follow the truth, he will be like those misguided people about whom God says in the Qur’an:
“If they are told to follow what God has revealed, they say: ‘No, we will continue to follow what we found our fore parents doing!’ Even though their fore parents did not comprehend anything nor were they rightly guided.” (Al-Baqarah 2:170)
God forbids us from obeying our parents if what they want us to do is against the way of the prophets. He said, in the Qur’an,
“We advise man to be good to his parents, but if they try to make you do in My name what you know to be false, do not obey them.” (Al-`Ankabut 29:8)
Those who are fortunate to be born in Muslim families must be aware that all such “Muslims” are not automatically guaranteed paradise, because the Prophet warned that a large part of the Muslim nation would follow the Jews and Christians so closely that if they entered the den of a lizard, Muslims would climb in after them as well. He also said that before the Last Day some people would actually worship idols. Today, there are Muslims all around the world praying to the dead, building tombs and masjids over graves and even performing rites of worship around them. There are even some who claim to be Muslim and worship Ali as God. Some have turned the Qur’an into a good luck charm which they hang on chains around their necks, in their cars or on key chains etc. Therefore, those born into such a Muslim world who blindly follow whatever their parents did or believed, have to stop and think whether they are simply a Muslim by chance or a Muslim by choice, whether Islam is what their parents, tribe, country, or nation did or does, or what the Qur’an teaches and what the Prophet and his companions did.
 Al-’Aqeedah at- Tahaaweeyah, (8th ed.. 1984) p.245.
 Saheeh Muslim
 Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim
 Al-’Aqeedah at-Tahaaweeyah, (5th ed.: 1972). p.273.
 Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim
 Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim
 The Nusayris of Syria and the Druzes of Palestine and Lebanon.
Taken with slight editorial modifications from islamreligion.com.
By Sumayyah Meehan
In Islam, there is only one teacher who has laid out the groundwork for the spiritual education of mankind, by the Grace of God Almighty.
“And (it is) a Qur’an which We have divided (into parts), in order that you might recite it to men at intervals. And We have revealed it by stages.” (Al-Isra’ 17:106)
Some of the most influential people in our lives are teachers.
Most of us can remember our very first teacher in school, the one who taught us our ABC’s and the proper rules of the playground.
As we have progressed from toddler to adult, there have been countless teachers along the way who helped us on our journey to adulthood and even beyond. The high school math teacher who helped you to perfect your Algebra or the college professor that taught you the spirit of debate, the very fabric of our being is heavily influenced by teachers who guided us in our educational journeys.
In Islam, there is only one teacher who has laid out the groundwork for the spiritual education of mankind, by the Grace of God Almighty. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), an illiterate man, was chosen by God Almighty to be the Final Messenger and perfect teacher to Muslims.
Known as the “Living Qur’an”, Prophet Muhammad was charged with reciting and conveying the message of the Qur’an to all of mankind. However, he was no ordinary teacher. In fact, he set the ideal standard of education over a thousand years ago and the effects are still being felt today.
There are innumerable ways in which Prophet Muhammad was, and still is, the greatest teacher to have ever lived. Here are just a few!
No Student Left Behind
In classrooms all over the world, it is a common practice for teachers to separate the strong students from the weak. The latter of which are delegated to less challenging classes that do nothing to nurture the mind while the “smarter” students are given every opportunity to excel.
Prophet Muhammad made no distinction between students based on intelligence level, social standing or any other classification that separates us in society. He also never sought to exclude or expel anyone from the religion of Islam, but rather delivered a message that was all-inclusive to the whole of mankind. The Prophet Muhammad said:
“By Allah! If He may guide through you a single man to Islam, it would be better for you than red camels.” (Al-Bukhari, 192)
By setting this example of inclusion, Muslims have a tangible example of how to attract others to the Islamic faith.
The Perfect Speaker
Most of us, at some point or another, have come across at least one teacher that was inaudible or spoke so fast that it was next to impossible to understand what was being said let alone taught. Even today, the rapid pace in which most educators speak is overlooked so as to cram as much information into each lesson as possible.
Prophet Muhammad was methodical in his teaching methods and never rushed his lessons. According to his beloved wife Aisha, he:
“…spoke in such a way that if one were to count his words, they could be counted.” (Al-Bukhari, 768)
The Prophet also, according to his companions, would repeat his words thrice. The words that he spoke and the lessons he delivered were unambiguous, which helped students of Islam excel at perfecting their faith and committing the Qur’an to their hearts. The perfection of Prophet Muhammad’s speech was intentional as a means to really drive the message home to each one of his students through repetition, which is an excellent learning tool.
Living by Example
Perhaps one of the greatest qualities that made Prophet Muhammad such a phenomenal teacher is that he led by example. He often lectured to his companions about the Oneness of God Almighty, living a life in accordance with Islam and being mindful of the Hereafter.
In every aspect of his life, Prophet Muhammad was an exemplar and practiced what he preached. This made it easy for his companions to see, up close and personal, how to live their lives in accordance with the Qur’an and Sunnah. As God Almighty says in the Qur’an:
“There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day and [who] remembers Allah often.” (Al-Ahzab 33:21)
If Prophet Muhammad had not lived every aspect of the Qur’an in minute detail, it would have had a derogatory effect on the level of trust that he had developed with his companions.
Patience Through Adversity
How many times, especially in the inner city schools of America, have you heard of teachers lamenting “tough” students and throwing in the towel?
For many teachers, there is a very fine line between reaching out to students in the spirit of understanding and not being able to get through to the students who fight every step of the way.
The Prophet Muhammad was met with an enormous amount of disdain and outright hatred as he began teaching the message of Islam at the onset of his Prophethood. In Makkah, he spent thirteen years in an attempt to teach his misguided people about the message of the Qur’an and was met with violent resistance every step of the way with only a minority of his people embracing Islam.
Prophet Muhammad met similar, albeit less, conflict after settling in Madinah and not once did he even consider quitting. Some of the finest personal attributes that helped to strengthen his resolve and reinforce his dedication to his mission included wisdom, patience and a willingness to make sacrifices for the sake of Allah Almighty.
The method in which Prophet Muhammad taught the message of Islam to his companions had a ripple effect that has transcended centuries to make Islam the world’s fastest growing religion today.
Whether you are a new Muslim or a born-Muslim, the example of Prophet Muhammad as a gifted teacher is a unifying force in the Islamic world and continues to be a catalyst for greater understanding through education.
Taken with slight editorial modifications from onislam.net.
Sumayyah Meehan reverted to Islam almost 16 years ago. She is a Waynesburg College graduate with a BA in Criminal Justice. Sumayyah is currently working on two Islamic book projects. She is a regular contributor to Al Jumuah Magazine and The Muslim Observer Newspaper. Sumayyah resides in Kuwait with her husband and four children.